The Soviet heavy — is a large, massive breed of horses. Such horses are able to carry loads of several tons. For these purposes, mainly used breed — they carry Laden carts and wagons. Soviet heavies is considered a unique horse due to the large number of advantages.
The first machines appeared in Western Europe in the eighteenth century, and Russia they began to breed later. Among the many draft breeds the most popular Soviet truck, which glorified the breeders of Russia. This breed was developed from dogs imported from Belgium in the late nineteenth century. It was developed in the Soviet Union. Local work type mares were crossed with the Belgian dogs and the result was a breed of horses of the Soviet draft horses.
To improve the breed, there have been many works of breeders. To improve animal work Professor Kislovsky and livestock Antsin. Through a long selection and a sensible approach to the process characteristics of heavy draft horses has improved significantly. Horses were more hardy to local conditions of keeping and feeding, body type has become less dry.
The main purpose of breeding these horses was the need of farmers in hardy and capable of transporting heavy loads of animals. In the mid-twentieth century the breed continued to improve — from horses, grown in the Soviet stud. In 1952 was approved by the Soviet heavy draft breed. It meets all the requirements. The ancestors of the horses from which the breed was developed, was less harmonious addition and did not have such mobility, how the Soviet heavy. In addition, the mares are draft horses of the Soviet possessed a large ratio of milk productivity.
Soviet heavy has a great height and total size of the addition.
- Growth of 170 centimeters at the withers.
- Weight up to one ton.
- The chest is massive and wide.
- The neck is powerful, muscular.
- Head of medium size, well proportioned.
- Middle ears are sagging.
- The back is soft, allows the use of the horse and under saddle.
- The loin is broad and smooth, and cereals forked and a bit saggy, so that the horse can hold a heavy load.
- Feet dry and muscular with tough hooves.
- The suit is red, red-roan, chestnut or gneto-Chalo.
- The mane and tail are lush.
The Soviet heavies can be incorrect setting of the legs, but this defect is not reflected negatively on his abilities. Although it still try to avoid when breeding. Feature of the heavy — a little short in the thigh, extra long blades, short headstock, large hocks and a wide pastern.
The nature of Soviet heavies are good-natured and very energetic.
The characteristics of productivity
This is a precocious breed, which is characterized by very high productivity. The growth in horses is also very intense. Yearling foals weigh more than a ton. With two and a half years horses can already be used to heavy work, and five years of age, they can participate in special competitions. This breed has a very long working the use. In mares can sometimes be an issue even after twenty years.
In addition, the great advantage of animals is that feeding them can be quite cheap feed, as long as they were voluminous. Also these horses are suitable for almost any conditions and they are extremely hardy. The milk production of horses is also very high.
On the traction qualities of the horse almost can replace a tractor. These horses can transport heavy loads that are inaccessible to lifting other types of horses. They can also work with farm machinery. Working tests regularly prove the ability of this breed. So, on standard trials, the horse passes two kilometer step, pulling a weight of four and a half tons.
Thanks to the blood of local breeds of the horse are characterized by high agility. A cart weighing half a ton Soviet truck can pull even trot, while not particularly straining.
By and large for a small economy the ability of Soviet heavies even unnecessary. And considering that this is a great horse with great appetite, its content, despite the General simplicity, for personal services will be difficult. Best this breed is suitable for large farms and agricultural industries.
The types of Soviet heavy horses
The breed Soviet heavies were engaged two horse of the plant — pochinkovskaya and Mordovia.
In this regard, has distinguished two types of breeds, each with their own differences:
- Pochinkovskiy horses are very pronounced, heavy-duty. They have a massive figure, large and long legs, elongated body.
- Mordovian horse retains quality Suffolk horses, having a relatively compact and dry bones.
And also you need to remember about records achieved by the breed. The absolute record of capacity was installed by Soviet heavy. It was a stallion Ford gnade-made suit, which in 1957 at the Tambov racetrack has taken the burden of almost 23 tons weight, passing him a distance of 35 metres. After that, Soviet heavyweights were regularly set new records at the all-Union competitions from 1960 to 1990.
At the present time in connection with the development of technology and the automation of agriculture, horse labor is increasingly displaced by the. In this regard, decreasing the population of thoroughbred horses, the demand and the need for horses decreased. Now purebred Shire horses have almost can be included in the Red book. The main obstacle to the use of these valuable animals is the lack of people who know how to train, educate and work with this breed of horses. But still there are those who continue to use Soviet heavy horses and in the vastness of Russia.
But in European countries the demand for this breed, on the contrary, increased significantly. Soviet heavyweights meet regularly at international competitions and are included in the program to improve heavy draft breeds.
In Russia currently the best population of the Soviet draft horses concentrated in Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod and Yaroslavl regions. If you want to buy a purebred Soviet heavies with the best set of genetic characteristics, it is necessary to turn to agriculture of Mordovia and Nizhny Novgorod region.