The requirements of the hunting minimum are unified throughout the territory of Russia. The rules set out the safety techniques when hunting, when dealing with hunting weapons, the basis of biology of wild animals. Knowledge of the hunting limit is necessary for obtaining a hunting ticket.
Hunting minimum 2018 approved in the order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation of June 30, 2011 N 568. Download the order.
Requirements of the hunting minimum in 2018
Requirements for hunting rules
The requirements of the hunting rules are established by the Hunting Rules approved by the order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation No. 512 of November 16, 2010, “On Approval of the Hunting Rules” (registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on February 4, 2011, registration No. 19704), and include the duties of the hunter in the course of hunting, the duties of the person responsible for collective hunting, the requirements for hunting ungulates, bears, fur-bearing animals, game game, steppe and field game, bolo but the meadow game, waterfowl, mountain game and other game requirements to hunt with dogs hunting breeds and hunting birds, the requirements for catching and shooting of game resources and hunting restrictions, terms of hunting on the hunting resources.
Safety requirements for hunting
When hunting is not allowed to carry out firing:
in the direction of people, as well as in the case when the projectile can pass closer than 15 meters from them;
it is not clear the apparent goal;
in cases where the hunter does not see or does not know the place where the projectile stops, taking into account the range of flight and the possibility of a ricochet of the projectile.
When carrying out collective hunting, it is not allowed to leave places designated in advance by the person responsible for collective hunting (rifle numbers), without verbal permission from such person.
It is not allowed to carry out hunting in a state of alcoholic or narcotic intoxication.
In case of injury to the animal, it is necessary to take early steps to implement its selection.
When approaching a wounded animal, special care must be taken, given the degree of its danger.
If a hunter finds animals that have fallen for unknown reasons, they are not allowed to take them in their hands and use them for food.
The hunter is recommended to have the skills of orientation on the terrain.
The hunter should strive to improve and expand his knowledge of safety in hunting, including the skills of safe handling of hunting weapons, movement, orientation, the establishment of recreational facilities in hunting grounds, bearing in mind that his personal knowledge, skills and experience depend on life and the health of both himself and the people around him.
Safety requirements when handling hunting guns
Hunting weapons – firearms, pneumatic and cold weapons, referred to hunting weapons in accordance with the Federal Law of December 13, 1996 N 150-FZ “On Arms”, as well as ammunition, traps and other devices, appliances, equipment used in hunting .
When dealing with hunting firearms:
always handle hunting firearms as if it is loaded and ready to fire;
comply with the safety requirements and operating conditions set out in the passport (operating instructions) of a specific sample of hunting firearms;
check the trunk canals before and after firing for foreign objects in them and, if necessary, remove them;
in case of a misfire, open the bolt of the hunting firearm not earlier than after 5 seconds;
transport hunting firearms discharged and packaged in a transport container, case or cover. During transportation and transportation the cartridges can be packed in one cap with a gun without being sent to the chamber, magazine equipment or drum.
When handling hunting firearms, it is not allowed:
to direct weapons to a person;
send the cartridge into the barrel chamber by force or clog it;
shoot simultaneously from two barrels of hunting firearms;
use cartridges that are not intended for shooting from this sample of hunting firearms;
use for firing defective cartridges, cartridges with expired shelf life and axial cartridges or cartridges equipped with items not intended to be used as striking elements in this type of hunting firearm;
independently perform repair of the main units and mechanisms of hunting firearms (barrel, bolt, drum, frame, receiver), make constructive changes in them.
When handling a pneumatic weapon with a muzzle energy of not more than 25 J, it is recommended that immediately after replacing the gas cylinder used in such weapons, it is recommended to shoot off the remaining gas in the cylinder.
When using hunting cold bladed weapons, it is not allowed to use such weapons with blades that are not firmly fixed in the handles.
Equipment of cartridges for hunting firearms can be produced by the owner of these weapons for personal use if they have permission to store and carry hunting firearms.
When handling traps or other devices, devices and (or) structures designed to restrict the freedom and (or) extraction of animals by the automatic action of the elements of such devices, devices and (or) structures, or due to movements of the animal itself (hereinafter referred to as “the air”), Do not allow the presence of hands, feet or other parts of the body in the area of action of the working elements of traps or samolov.
Fundamentals of Biology of Wild Animals
The hunter should strive to improve the knowledge of the biology of wild animals, including the features of their appearance at different times of the year, the distinctive features of males and females, young and adult animals, and their anatomy in order to be able to distinguish between hunting sex and age, distinguish them from mammals and birds listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation and (or) in the Red Books of the subjects of the Russian Federation, as well as prevent the loss of hunters of hunting resources.
Types of hunting resources inhabiting the territory of the Russian Federation:
Family of Deer
The noble deer (European, Caucasian, maral and wapiti)
Siberian roe deer
The Kabarga family
Siberian musk deer
Siberian mountain goat
Order of Predators
The Bear family
White-chested (Himalayan) bear
Amur Forest Cat
Detachment of the Rodent
The West Siberian and Tuva subspecies of the beaver are included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.
Family of Squirrels
Steppe marmot (bobak)
Mongolian marmot (tarbagan)
Long-tailed ground squirrel
Mottled Ground Squirrel
Daursky (Trans-Baikal) ground squirrel
Elbrusky (mountain or caucasian) ground squirrel
Large (reddish) ground squirrel
Yellow ground squirrel (sandstone)
Flying squirrel (flying squirrel)
Hamster Radde (pre-Caucasian)
The Transcaucasian hamster
The Manchu hare
Order of insectivores
Small, slender, cloven-hoofed animals on thin long legs, of which the hind legs are considerably longer than the forelegs. In appearance, the animal is like a small deer. The weight of a male rarely exceeds 25 kilograms, females are smaller. Rogues have neither males nor females. The males from under the upper lip are given long dagger-like fangs. The tail is hidden by the surrounding wool. The scalp is thick, stiff, consisting mainly of thick, coarse, wavy osteaceous hair. Coloration is brown, usually with an unclear pattern of light spots. On the neck stretch two light stripes. The males on the belly have a glandular sac containing a musk mass (a kabarozhaya stream).
The family includes only one genus Kabarga, on the territory of the Russian Federation there is only one species: Siberian musk deer.
Siberian mountain goat
There are four fingers on the legs, but only two middle fingers touch the ground. The lateral fingers are greatly reduced and do not touch it when walking on firm ground. Each finger ends in a hoof.
They usually hang in groups. Eat various plants. Some deer are characterized by migrations. Usually the rutting period falls on autumn-winter. Duration of pregnancy is about 5 to 10 months. The number of young in the litter varies from 1 to 4.
A distinctive feature – hollow horns, which are horny covers, worn on long outgrowths of the bones of the skull. In females, as a rule, the horn is smaller. In some members of the family, the external differences between the sexes are poorly expressed.
The growth of the horn, in contrast to the deer, comes from its base. Thus, the top of the horn represents the oldest part of it. Characteristic is the periodic strengthening and slowing down of the growth of the horns, as a result of which peculiar rings form on its horny surface. The shape of the horns is extremely diverse – from completely straight, long and thin to short, thick and strongly curved or spirally twisted. In the cross-section, the horns are round, oval or almost triangular. On the surface of them often there are protrusions, transverse folds and rings or longitudinal ribs.
Fingers on the limbs of 4 (rarely 2), but the lateral are greatly shortened and, although they have small claws, when walking on firm ground, they usually do not touch it.
The duration of pregnancy is 4-11 months. In the litter, 1-2 young.
Animals with a massive trunk, a thick, short neck, a long, tapered head, comparatively thin limbs and a short tail. The elongated muzzle is truncated at the end and ends with a small, inactive stalk (snout) with discoid cartilage (patch), on which two nostrils are located. Eyes small, ears large often with a bunch of hair on top. The scalp is well developed, sometimes pruned, consists of bristles, the height of which reaches 30 to 180 millimeters in different parts of the body. Many individuals have a mane on their nape. Coloration of the hair cover from dark gray to reddish-brown or almost black.
The limbs are short, four-toed, middle fingers large, and the other two are higher, shifted backward and do not touch the ground under normal conditions. The animal rests on them only when walking on a soft ground. Large upper canines grow outward and backward, lower canines with open roots have a constant growth upward and backward. Fangs are more developed in males.
They are mainly inhabited in forests and dense thickets of shrubs in forest-steppe and steppes, in mountain forests, as well as in reed and shrub thickets of river valleys and shores of large bodies of water. Prefer wet places. Usually kept in groups of up to 40-50 individuals. They are active mainly at night. Omnivorous, but prefer vegetable fodder. Pomeshtov in the year one, rarely two. Cubs in the litter 1-14. The duration of gestation is 112-175 days. Sexual maturity occurs in 9-15 months.
Order of Predators
The overwhelming majority of representatives of the order Predatory are classic carnivores, hunting mainly on vertebrates. Predatory in appearance are very diverse and contain outwardly dissimilar representatives. The constitution of carnivores varies from rough forms, like bears, to graceful forms, like the Cat family. The value varies from a small caress, whose weight is only 35-70 grams, to the Amur tiger, whose weight of a male can reach 250 kilograms.
The Bear family
The trunk of the bear family is elongated, the neck is thick, moderately long. The head is large, usually with a short, rarely an elongated muzzle. Eyes are small. The ears in some species are small, almost not protruding above the fur, or of moderate length, or large rather narrow.
The limbs are relatively short, five-fingered. All fingers touch the ground and are armed with long, curved, powerful, non-clawed claws. In the forelimbs, they are usually much larger than in the hind limbs. On the underside of the hand and foot, in addition to the naked finger pads, there is a transverse naked pillow, as well as bare areas of the skin behind it. When walking bears, the forelimbs rest on the fingers and the front part of the hand, and the back on the entire surface of the foot. The trail of the bear’s hind paw slightly resembles that of a man’s bare feet.
The fur is relatively coarse, thick, lush. The height of the hanging hair is 10-15 centimeters, the undercoat is 6-8 centimeters and more. Its color is one-color: white, black or brown with various shades. On the chest is a white spot, sometimes a white collar. Seasonal changes are expressed in the fact that the height and density of fur in the winter and summer are different.
By nature of feeding bears are omnivorous. The majority lead a sedentary lifestyle. Brown and white-chested (Himalayan) bears fall into winter sleep. The brown bear is characterized by ground dens, for the white-throated – tree hollows. Bears do not form permanent pairs, males and females do not stay together for long. Males are not taking care of the offspring of participation. In the litter, usually 1-2, rarely 3 cubs.
The body of the representatives of the Psalypus family is proportionally proportionate: a dense and not very flexible body. The tail is rather long, usually well pubescent. The head is elongated with an extended muzzle. Ears, as a rule, are high, their apex sharp and only occasionally rounded. Limbs of medium length (wolf), truncated (fox) or short (raccoon dog); The front and back are approximately the same length. When walking, they rely on the fingers and the front of the hand and foot. The forelimbs are five-fingered, the first finger is always of small size and is located above the rest. Hind legs four-fingered. Claws are not tight, stupid, slightly curved.
The hair covering, as a rule, is tall, dense and fluffy, more developed and dense in animals of the northern regions. One species (arctic fox) has a sharp seasonal color change. Representatives of the family are characterized by one or two molts during the year.
Incisors of small size. Fangs strongly developed, elongated, acute. Root teeth with cutting high protrusions on the chewing surfaces.
Dogs are common in all landscape areas. Most species prefer burrows as shelters, some as lairs. They feed mainly on animal food, often carrion.
Most members of the family form permanent long-term pairs. All wild species multiply once a year, are quite fertile, the litter of one female can reach 12-15 cubs.
Relatively small animals. The body is elongated, the legs are short, the tail is long, covered with thick hair. The head is wide with a short pointed facial part. Ears large, somewhat pointed, large eyes. The toes on the paws are deeply separated, grasping. Brushes and feet are covered with short hair, calluses on the soles of the feet are hairless, claws are not tight. When walking, they rest on the entire surface of the hand and feet.
The scalp is thick, tall, with well-developed down. The color is brownish-gray, on the tail from 5 to 7 sharply delimited black or brown rings. In the year, one molt.
Omnivorous. They feed on both vegetable fodder and small animals.
Initially, representatives of the Raccoon family were absent from the territory of Russia. They were brought from North America and artificially settled in the lands of our country. Types of hunting resources related to the family Raccoon, inhabiting the territory of the Russian Federation:
For members of the family is characterized by a slender build-up, a flexible, more or less elongated torso. Neck shortened. The head is rounded with a short facial part. Eyes large with a vertical or circular pupil. Ears are relatively small with rounded or pointed apices, sometimes ending in tassels (lynx).
Paws are rounded. The forelimbs are five-fingered (the first finger is located high and very small), the rear ones are four-fingered. Claws of all species, except cheetah, are retractile, large, strongly curved and sharp. The combination of moving fingers and retractable claws makes the paw a perfect grasping body.
In representatives of the Cat family, acute hearing and beautiful color vision, as well as good sense of touch. On the head there are special very long tactile hair – vibrissae, the most notable of which are the “whiskers”.
The hairline is usually low, but thick and soft. The color varies from gray, reddish or yellowish-brown to bright red and brown, usually with stripes and spots. The tail (of different lengths) is covered by an equal length of hair. Kittens in all species have a spotted color.
Incisors of small size. Fangs strongly developed, elongated, acute. Root teeth with cutting high protrusions on the chewing surfaces.
Small and small predatory animals. Males are 1.3-1.5 times larger than females. Squat, the trunk is elongated.
The head is usually small, flattened, with a shortened snout. In most species, a trunk passes through the opening where the head passes. Ears are often small, occasionally large with rounded apices. In some species (aquatic), the ears are small. The length of the tail varies from very short to long.
The limbs are short, with non-clawing claws. The soles of the hand and feet are covered with hair or have bare cushions, or are completely naked. In the representatives of waterbearing species there is a swimming membrane between the fingers.
The scalp is thick, high, soft, occasionally coarse and bristly. On the head or trunk can pass strips or spots.
Fangs well developed. The chewing surface of molars can have sharp or blunted peaks.
According to the nature of feeding predators, but also use other food. The badger has a tendency to omnivor. As a rule, they lead a sedentary lifestyle. Usually the shelter is its own underground holes. Badger during the cold season falls into a dream. They are active mainly at night, partly at dusk. Of the sense organs, hearing is best developed, and some also have sense of smell. They reproduce once a year, in the litter of 1-10 young.
Detachment of the Rodent
The squad of the rodent is the most numerous and diverse detachment of mammals. Body sizes range from 5 to 130 centimeters. The tail in rodents can be much longer than the body, and maybe completely absent. The shape of the body and limbs in rodents can vary greatly depending on the way of life. So the jumping form can be strongly developed hind legs. In burrowing rodents, the body acquires a cylindrical shape. The main characteristic of the difference in rodents is one pair of enlarged incisors, both on the upper jaw and on the lower jaw. The incisors of rodents constantly grow and stitch. Their growth rate reaches 0.8 mm per day (for beavers). The front surface of the incisors is covered with hard enamel, the back is relatively soft, so that these teeth are self-sharpened during gnawing.
The largest rodents of the northern hemisphere are adapted to a semi-aquatic life. The only ones among mammals are able to erect irrigation structures – dams.
The body is squat, with shortened five-fingered limbs; The posterior ones are much stronger than the anterior ones. Between the fingers there are swimming membranes, strongly developed on the hind limbs and weakly on the forelegs. Claws strong, flattened, slightly curved. The claw of the second finger of the hind limbs is bifurcated, the beast combs its hair.
Body weight is up to 28 kilograms.
Tail paddle, strongly flattened from top to bottom. Eyes small, ears short, wide, barely protruding above the level of fur. The color of the fur is subject to great geographical and individual variability.
They reproduce once a year, in a litter up to 6 cubs.
Family of Squirrels
The size of the representatives of the family of Squirrels varies greatly. The exterior is extremely diverse.
Part of the representatives of this family has adapted to life in the steppe and desert areas and uses burrows as shelters, which dig themselves, part of the representatives are wood animals. In appearance representatives of the family of Belichya are divided into 2 types: similar to proteins, similar to ground squirrels.
Eyes quite large. The limbs are well developed, the hind legs usually longer than the forelegs, but not more than 2 times. Hind legs five-toed, front four or five-fingered. Fingers with sharp claws. The length of the tail varies from short to long (longer than the body). The tail is always densely covered with hair, sometimes long, with a brush on the end.
The scalp is dense and soft, relatively high or strongly thinned, resembling bristles. Color of fur is one-color or with stripes and spots, it varies from black and white to reddish or dark-dirty yellow. Some species have cheek pouches.
The main distinguishing feature of the family members is the presence between the fore and hind limbs (sometimes between the limbs and tail and forelimbs and neck) of the skin fold, serving for the planning flight. The forelimbs are only slightly shorter than the hind legs. The front paws are four-fingered, the back paws are five-fingered. Claws relatively short, curved, sharp. The scalp is thick, silky, usually of the same type, ocherous-gray in color.
Representatives of the family are adapted to the normal, underground or semi-aquatic lifestyle, which determined the different structure of their body. The limbs are five-fingered. The tail is usually shorter than the length of the body. Occur in all landscape areas.
Zaitseobraznye – animals of small size, with a short tail, or it is absent altogether. Their teeth have some similarities with the teeth of rodents. Teeth in lagiformes are deprived of closed roots and are constantly growing, which is due to the rapid wear on their crowns. All lagiformes are terrestrial animals that can neither climb well nor swim. They inhabit forests, steppes and deserts, tundra, highlands. Some of them prefer vast open spaces, others live among dense thickets and stone placers. Some special shelters do not and are held alone, others dig burrows and settle in small colonies. Zaits like are common in almost all parts of the world.
Representatives of the family are distinguished by long ears, their length far exceeds half the length of the head. At the base of the ears are spliced into the tube. The limbs are five-fingered with a strong reduction of the first toes on the fore and hind limbs. The hind legs are usually considerably longer than the forelegs. The lower surface of the feet has hair brushes. Finger pads are not naked. Claws almost straight, pointed.
The hairline is usually thick, high and soft, but in some species it is rare and coarse. The color is highly variable. In some species, seasonal molting changes the morphology of the hair and their coloration. Within a year, two molts.
As a rule, females are larger than males. Harelings are born sighted, with thick fur, in rabbits – blind and naked.
Order of insectivores
The detachment is dominated by small and very small animals. The head is wedge-shaped in most, with a nose that is elongated in the form of a proboscis. The body of most animals is covered with smooth, thick velvety fur, a few have stiff bristly hair or short needles. The limbs are arranged in different ways, depending on the way of life. Insectivores are an ancient and primitive group of mammals with a weaker development of the brain than other mammals.
They lead an underground, digging and semi-aquatic life. Torso, as a rule, elongated, valkovatoe, limbs truncated, in most forms adapted to digging, in some – to swimming.
Fingers are armed with long, flattened claws. The hind legs are usually weaker than the forelegs, their feet are narrow and long. The head is small, with an elongated conical snout. Eyes small, in some species are covered with skin. Outer ears are usually absent or very small. The neck is short, sometimes quite unnoticeable.
Class of Birds
Order of the Anseriformes
Ogar (red duck)
Black (yellow-eared) mallard
Red Nose Dive
American navy black
Siberian (small) eider
Ordinary (black) turpan
Keklik (stone partridge)
Bearded (Daurian) partridge
Silent Quail (Japanese)
Ordinary black grouse
Chibis, or lump
The family of snap-ins
The Great Uley
Siberian ash snail
American ash snake
The Great Godwitcher
American beak-like godwit
Small Baby Crank
The Great Curlew
Mountain Dupel (hermit-snipe)
Order of the Ryabkoobraznye
The blue dove
In accordance with Part 2 of Article 11 of the Federal Law of July 24, 2009 No. 209-FZ “On hunting and preserving hunting resources and on amending certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation” in order to ensure the maintenance of traditional lifestyles and the traditional economic activities of indigenous small peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation, the following species of birds are also classified as hunting resources:
The average skua
Short Skin Skua
The Pacific Gull
The Gray-winged Gull
The fork-tailed seagull
The big auklet
Order of the Anseriformes
In the order of the Anseriformes, there are birds of large and medium size. The largest representative of the detachment is a mute swan, reaching 13 kg of weight. The smallest is the teal teal, which weighs about 200-300 g. As a rule, the anseriforms have a large body and a comparatively small head, located on a long neck. A characteristic feature of the Anseriformes are the membranes between three forward-directed toes, important for movement in the water.
A group of birds more or less associated with water bodies. The group is morphologically fairly homogeneous. Their anatomical similarity consists mainly of the fact that the flattened beak is provided from the inside along the edges with numerous horny platelets, which act as a kind of tamped apparatus. Only in the krakhals the beak is narrow and long, with a hook at the end, the platelets are transformed into horny teeth. All members of the family have short legs, swimming membranes connect three front fingers. Plumage dense, dense, under feathers a dense down cover. For protection from wetting, the birds are greased with feathering of the coccygeal gland.
The type of development of the chicks is brood, the chicks after hatching leave the nest and feed themselves.
Main differences within the family:
In geese, unlike geese, black legs;
in swans, all plumage in individuals older than the year is pure white, the first year have light dirty gray, rusty or brownish plumage;
Cannellini, including cucumbers, are a transitional form from geese to duck, prefer to settle in burrows;
river ducks do not have a broad dermal blade on the back of the foot, in contrast to ducks, and a wide “nail” on the beak, and also feature a high landing on the water. All kinds in all outfits have a “mirror” on the minor feathers, most often colored;
Diving ducks on the water sit deep, lowering the back of the body, the tail is kept low under water. Legs are left far back, on the ground walk poorly and reluctantly. When taking off take a run, working hard and kicking. Mirror on the wing is only white;
a specialized group of predominantly fish-eating ducks with a characteristic beak structure turned into a tool for grasping the fish: the plates of the seedling machine are converted into rigid teeth on the hook and the superclobe, the nail is a predatory hook. Beak is narrow, elongated. The constitution is elongated, the neck is long. Excellent dive and catch prey in the water column.
Order of Euphorbia
A widespread and well-isolated ancient group of birds. The bulk of it is made up of birds of medium size; large and small birds are few. The mass of the quail is 80-120 g, the capercaillie – up to 6 kg. Appearance of chicken birds is in accordance with the terrestrial way of life, characteristic of most of the representatives of this order.
Their constitution is dense, the head is small, the neck is short, the beak is short, strong, slightly convex, adapted for obtaining coarse, predominantly plant food from the surface of the earth or from tree-shrub vegetation. The wings are short and wide, facilitating a rapid vertical ascent, which is often important for terrestrial birds, especially those living in the forest. The flight of chicken birds is fast, but heavy, usually accomplished over a short distance. Long-range flight is characteristic only of a few migratory species, for example quail, which unlike other chicken, the wing is not stupid, but relatively sharp.
Birds fly, as a rule, swiftly and with noise; gaining altitude, fly in a straight line, alternating with frequent flaps of wings with planning. Legs of medium length, strong, with strong fingers and short, slightly curved claws; with their help, many birds rake the surface of the soil when searching for food. Some chicken along the edges of the fingers have fringes of horny plates that promote retention on the branches and movement over snow-covered ground. Chicken move well on the ground – they walk and run. Take off only when absolutely necessary. The plumage is dense and rigid. Color varied.
Birds of a dense constitution, ranging in size from small to large, most species are of medium size. Legs of medium length are strong, wings are also strong, short, wide and rounded. The head is small, the beak is short and thick with scissorike cutting edges. Plumage is dense, there is no fluff. Thermal insulation is created due to the presence on each coverslip of an additional rod with a feather edge, especially developed in the winter.
They lead a terrestrial way of life, although they can feed and sleep on trees. They consume mostly plant food, including very rough food. Animal feeds are of great importance in the summer for chicks.
The system of family and marriage relations is different, as is the participation of males in caring for the offspring. Nasizhivaniem busy only female. The chicks appear lightly covered with fluff and immediately after hatching are able to follow the female. Young birds early acquire the ability to fly.
Most species are sedentary or make seasonal migrations, seasonal flights make only quail.
The main difference between the representatives of the family Fazanov from the family Tetereviny are the unopened nostrils, covered with a small leathery lobe. Legs (forge and fingers) are also without feathers.
The characteristic features of the Teterivine family are similar to those of the Fazanov family. The most important signs that distinguish these families are the nostrils covered with feathers and the feathering of the legs. In the black grouse, grouse and wood grouse all the forging is feathered, and on the fingers in the winter time there is a rim of horny plates, which increases the support area, which helps birds to burrow into the snow and keep on tree branches. White and tundra partridges are feathered to the very claws. All grouse have soft leathery eyebrows, especially developed in males in the spring and capable of swelling greatly during takings.
The tundra and white partridge is characterized by the change of seasonal outfits.
Types of hunting resources related to the Tetervine family living on the territory of the Russian Federation:
A very diverse group of birds. Dimensions from small to large, weight from 20 g (small shepherd) to 12-16 kg (some cranes, bustards), length, respectively, from 12 to 120-176 cm. Inhabitants are near-water biotopes and dry open spaces, few are associated with forest vegetation. Among the cranes there are no real tree and sea birds. Most species nest on the ground, do not form colonies. The food is varied, many groups are omnivorous, part of it leads a twilight and nocturnal lifestyle.
Birds of small and medium size, the beak and legs are short or slightly elongated, long fingers on the legs. Fly, with the exception of coots, reluctantly. Most of the representatives of the family live permanently in dense meadow or near-water vegetation, and their presence can often be judged only by votes at the time of marriage. They are active mainly at night and on dawns, to facilitate movement in dense thickets the body is slightly squeezed from the sides.
In all the representatives of the family, the shepherd chicks are born with fluff and immediately after hatching they are able to follow the female.
One of the largest detachments of water and waterbirds, distributed throughout the world and significantly differing both in their appearance and in the characteristics of biology. Birds from small to medium size, their weight varies from 19 g to 2 kg. Among them there are both colonial birds, and those living apart. The polar tern makes annual flights over a distance of more than 28,000 km between the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the coast of Antarctica, and the mountain crane lives a settled life.
Chunky and not very long-legged waders, inhabitants of open spaces: tundra, steppes, meadows, fields, coasts. The beak is straight, short, strong. The color is diverse, but more often brighter than that of waders.
The type of development is brood, all representatives are migratory species.
The family of snap-ins
The most representative and diverse group of the squad is the Charadriiformes. The type of development is brood, all representatives are migratory species.
The family is divided into several subfamilies:
Ulits – waders, painted in combinations of gray, white and black flowers, without red and other bright colored tones in plumage. The majority – slender and long-legged, medium-sized, less common are small and short-legged. The legs are four-fingered. All the streets have white tadal and white with a transverse striped tail. Representatives of the group differ in the characteristic manner of shaking the back of the body.
Sandpipers have low legs and not very long beak. A typical representative is a ruffle, unmistakably determined by the mating plumage of males.
Snipe-like waders are relatively large, medium and small in size, with short four-toed legs and a long beak. Coloring patronizing, males and females are painted the same. Seasonal changes in coloring are insignificant. A characteristic feature of the behavior is secrecy.
Order of the Ryabkoobraznye
In general, they resemble pigeons, with a small head and a short beak, the nostrils of which are not covered by fleshy swellings, with weak, low short legs, with sharp, long wings adapted to a rapid flight, and a long wedge-shaped tail. The detachment is represented by a single family.
Appearance and size representatives of the family Ryabkovye most like a gray partridge with an elongated tail and wings. They live in dry steppes and deserts. Legs are feathered to the fingers or to the very claws. Males are slightly larger than females and differ in some features of coloration. Perfectly fly. Nest on the ground. The chicks appear lightly covered with fluff and immediately after hatching are able to follow the female. Characteristic are regular flights to watering places, for the performance of which birds gather in flocks even in nesting time.
A large and widespread bird detachment. The head is small, the neck is short, the beak is straight, the base is covered with a wax, the nostrils are covered with lids. They feed on seeds, tropical species – fruits, but also eat animal food. Fly very well, in temperate countries are migratory. Live in pairs, build simple nests and usually lay 2 eggs 2 or more times a year. The walls of strongly developed goiter exude a substance similar to cottage cheese, which pigeons feed the chicks at the first time after exiting the egg. Pigeons are found in all zoogeographical regions. The number of pigeon species is about 360.
Birds of medium size, dense body. The tail is of moderate length, more or less rounded, with wings of medium size with a pointed apex. They use only active waving flight, do not soar. The plumage is dense. The beak is weak, at the base is covered with a soft leathery wax which covers both the nostrils. The legs are short, four-fingered.
Males are somewhat larger than females. There are no seasonal changes in color. Cerebroic, have bulky goiter. Water is suctioned, not tossing your head for every sip. Daily activity is diurnal.
Monogamous, in hatching and feeding of chicks participate both parents, live in pairs during the entire nesting period.
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