Modern hunting cartridges of 12, 16 and 20 gauge are loaded with the four main types of smokeless powder. Along with quality “Sunroom”, the most common option is “Falcon”.
Part of the “Falcon” is a colloidal system based on nitrocellulose. Obtained by processing nitroglyceri volatile nitroglycerin. The grains have the form of plates with sizes up to 1.7 mm, and a thickness of not more than 0.13 mm. For the ballistic stability of the plates treated with graphite. Grain produced by a special drum technology in two ways:
- first grade;
- top grade.
During combustion, in the chamber formed with the pressure from 630кгс/sq. cm to 650 depending on caliber. The combustion rate is 2.2 m/s bulk density at gear 0, 510 kg/l High muzzle pressure creates a high volume of shot and quite significant impact.
Manufacturer gives very little guidance on equipment cartridges “Falcon”. Since the development of technology was a lot of time, there are a lot of new varieties of hunting weapons.
To determine the characteristics of the equipment of each particular option, you need to test the speed of shot and bullets for different charge weight.
Empirically was established the average flight speed of the fraction for different ratios of the mass of charge:
- Charge weight 1,6 gr. a fraction of 24 Gy. — from 348 m/s to 356 m/s.
- The weight of the charge of 2.3 gr. a fraction of 32 Gy. — 384 m/s to 389 m/s.
When testing the cartridges equipped by bullets, the mass of charge remained unchanged — 2,2 gr. The test speed ranged from 362 m/s to 513 m/s. the Best result “Falcon” showed in the cartridge, filled with a bullet Mayer. The minimum rate had a cartridge with a bullet brennecke.
The ratio of mass fraction to the mass of the charge each hunter must be established empirically. The best would be an option when the charge gets high velocity with minimal recoil and sound of the shot. But in any case, you can rely on the performance of the following factors:
- C — mass fraction ratio of specific weapons;
- R is the mass of the powder charge for optimum linkage;
- K — value, which determines the charging attitude.
Between them they form such a relationship: x K = R. To determine the exact value of C, the weight of the gun 12 gauge should be divided into 94, for 16 — 100, weight 20 gauge 106, respectively. The average value of the index K is 10/165. Thus, having two coefficients is easy to determine the third desired charge. The average value is approximately equal to 16.5. An increase in this coefficient increases the accuracy of fire, but greatly reduced the sharpness of the shot. When reducing the sample everything is exactly the opposite.
The linkage is better done with weights. The special measure for “Falcon” does not always provide an accurate result. At the end of the production undergoes special testing. According to their results, determined by the charging factors for 12,16 and 20 gauges. They usually indicated on the package. If data is missing, or there is only for 12 gauge, you can use the following indicators:
- 12 gauge. The fraction with a mass of 34 g — =1;
- 16 gauge. A fraction weighing 28 g. — K=0,815;
- 20 caliber. The fraction with a mass of 23 g. — K=0,675.
Thus, based on the formula ratios have the following values sample:
- Weight of gunpowder for reloading weapons with a weight of 3,2-3,5 kg, chambered for 12 gauge: 1.8-2.2 g;
- Weight of gunpowder for reloading weapons with a weight of 2.9-3.2 kg, chambered for 16 gauge: 1,6-1,8 g;
- Weight of gunpowder for reloading weapons weighing 2.4-2.9 kg, chambered for 20 gauge: 1,3-1,5 g
All the relationships are determined empirically in the field, in accordance with the characteristics of a specific weapon.
Packing and storage
The factory packaging Sokol is a metal container designed for 200 or 250 gr. gunpowder. They are equipped with a special “zinc”, which in turn are Packed in wooden boxes weighing 50 kg. the Material is chemically stable, so proper storage jars preserves the quality of gunpowder more than 6 years. Zinc will provide up to 25 years of reliable protection.
Advantages and disadvantages
Today, Sokol is the most affordable of gunpowder. In this connection it is most prevalent among manufacturers of hunting cartridges of 12, 16 and 20 calibres. According to its characteristics, has a number of advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include:
- fast speed of combustion;
- high pressure powder gases;
- ballistic stability;
- chemical inertness;
- does not require high precision sample — it is 0.05 g. with a tendency to decrease, and it allows you to apply a wide range of measurements and scales;
- relatively low cost and provides low cost curb of the cartridge.
- Loud sound when firing.
- Strong muzzle flash.
- Serious recoil, faster tiring the hunter. Very noticeable using 16 and 20 gauge is not as critical with 12.
- The inability to use in gas operated semi-automatic weapon with a fixed barrel: there is extensive sparking the release of unburned particles of gunpowder from the window of the receiver.
In any case, the advantages of the “Falcon” outweigh the disadvantages. This is partly due to the large variety of modern hunting firearms in the design that may provide additional funds to reduce recoil or noise. The low price also plays an important role.
With the objective of capitalizing on the advantages of “Falcon” in practice, you must follow the following guidelines:
- In addition to brass shell casings, unlike other types of smokeless gunpowder “Sokol” no additional inconvenience loaded in paper cartridges. It does not require the accuracy of the sample, which reduces the risk of divergence of the liner seams in its excess.
- For quality equipment cartridge with pellets it is necessary to strengthen rolling.
- Use revelo-powerful capsule ensure complete combustion of gunpowder. In this capsule the high price, but it possesses a suitable capacity.
- Storage “Falcon” is unacceptable in areas with extreme temperature changes: the possibility of exudation of nitroglycerin from the crowd. This property of gunpowder made it impossible to use for bench shooting.
- It is not recommended to use the “Falcon” on it in untested weapons, as well as in old and worn-out models.