Today, many species of animals and birds are on the verge of extinction. The conservationists strongly fighting for the rights of endangered species, populations of endangered species are trying to save reserves and zoos.
To one of these birds include Siberian crane, and white crane.
White crane Sterkh considered decoration in some areas. The majestic white bird is considered a long-lived, on average, lives about 70 years. Bird Siberian crane is quite tall and large, grow to 140-150 cm, the wingspan is about 2.5 meters. The weight of an adult is around 8-8,5 kg.
The bird has white plumage except for the head and wings. The head of an adult at first glance seems aggressive because of the color of the plumage. Half of the head, in those places where the eyes and beak, has a fiery red plumage. The beak is long and looks intimidating. Eyes wary, the eyes can be red or light yellow color. Limbs smooth, long, pale pink color.
Young white cranes has a plumage of light brown shade.
This breed of birds belongs to the genus of cranes, for crane family. Males, as usual, a than females.
Noteworthy is the fact that cranes live only in the territory of the Russian Federation. Winter in Russia is very severe, so white cranes are forced in the winter to fly to warmer climes. They winter mainly on the coast of India, the Caspian sea and in some regions of Iran.
White cranes are protected by law, the President of Russia Vladimir Putin is taking personal charge of measures to combat the disappearance of this bird. For this purpose was created the state Fund “Flight of Hope”.
With the approach of spring the cranes to return home. Scientists have found that Siberian cranes have chosen a place in the Arkhangelsk region, the Komi Republic, Yakutia and Yamalo-Nenets autonomy.
In Yakutia, Siberian cranes like to nest in places inaccessible to humans, mainly in swampy areas and impassable forests tundra. Before the cold weather the breed from their homes is not going away.
Total population of white cranes can be divided into 2 subgroups:
They are no different, only that nest in different places. Just today, in the world there are more than 3,000 white cranes. It is very difficult to survive in a natural environment, populations can not withstand natural disasters and harsh weather conditions.
The diet of the Siberian crane
The white cranes can be called omnivorous. In the wild they feed on food of plant and animal origin.
In warm time of the year the cranes eat:
- the berries, plant seeds;
- eggs and Chicks of smaller birds;
- small vertebrates.
In winter, during migration, white cranes eat underwater rhizomes, sedge, small water rodents.
Reproduction of the Siberian crane
White cranes during mating choose one partner, they are completely monogamous. These birds arrive to the breeding grounds in may. Mating these majestic birds are accompanied by songs and dance. After choosing the female, the male lifts his head and a thin, clear voice makes a series of melodic lingering sounds. Then the dance, consisting of Pat wings, jumping, tossing branches. At this time the female watches the courtship, tightly pressed wings to the body.
White cranes nest in places that are well visible. Parents make in advance a supply of drinking water and feed. Build nests together, and involved a male and a female. Often the cranes are trying to build a nest in the pond with a small depth. This allows you to protect offspring from lovers to eat other people’s eggs.
Female lays no more than 2 eggs at a RAz. Eggs of grey colour, the shell of dark blotches. The period of incubation lasts about 29 days, then hatch into Chicks. It is noteworthy that up to half the Chicks are blue in the cornea of the eye with age it changes. From the first days of the brood has to learn to protect themselves from danger. The weak die, and only one chick grows into an adult. After 70 days, the plumage of the bird is light brown, white Siberian cranes are only in the third year of life.
Cranes at the zoo
For the first time the white cranes at the Moscow zoo appeared in 1987. People are trying to keep the population of endangered birds, so large and topionica and reserves is active the “domestication” of white cranes.
To contain representatives of this breed are trying in pairs. Zoopsychologists believe that in a couple of cranes easier to adapt to new conditions.
Reserve employees do our best to bring the conditions of detention to natural. People Lodge a couple of cranes on the shore of an artificial pond, the banks planted thick bushes. As feed, use the same that use cranes in their natural habitat.
Cranes are very wary of people. They do not show friendliness, trying once again to come and interact with people, eating with human hands are not taken.
Measures for protection of cranes
Unfortunately, animals and birds listed in the Red book every year stimulate the interest of poachers. White cranes continue to be in danger, the poachers at the first opportunity to catch these birds.
The issue of preserving white cranes as a separate species is discussed on a global level. In Russia in the 90-ies of the last century launched a project on growing Chicks of the Siberian crane in captivity. Since this project took place about 25 years, during this time in their natural habitat back about 100 grown-up Chicks. In the natural world-survive 30% of juveniles in captivity is about 20%.
The famous project “Flight of Hope”, under the supervision of the President of the Russian Federation, is the method of growing starsat in captivity. Chicks get there quite small, specially trained people prepare them for adult life.
In special nursery introduced a form for employees – costume adult white stork, where one sleeve is made in the form of the head of a crane. This is done so that a parent could Pat the baby bird, birds usually stroked his head. Adults teach the Chicks to look for food, to survive in the wild, and even fly. For special aircraft, managed people, youngsters up in the air. People were “escorted” the young to the places where the first of the Siberian crane, they are combined and then the young should have for living relatives.
The President of the Russian Federation tried himself in the role of “pack leader” and confirmed that this measure really helps to keep the young animals during migration to warmer climes.