During the 1964-1966 years completed the construction of the Dnieper dam of the Kiev hydroelectric station, with the result that on the Northern outskirts of Kiev, near the ancient Vyshgorod appeared in the Kiev reservoir, spread over the territory of the Gomel (Belarus), Chernigov and Kiev regions. Its length is 110 km, and width? at up to 12 km, average depth — 4 m, maximum depth 14 m, the coastline is 520 km and the water Exchange occurs depending on the water content of 8-15 times during the year. The reservoir is filled with water in the spring. Annual fluctuations in water level can reach 1.5 m.
the right Bank of the reservoir are somewhat high, left — low, canopy. The adjacent shallow-water areas of depths up to 2.5-3 m is 33-48% of the area. Due to the good warm sun, and the presence of significant amounts of mineral and organic substances, these areas are overgrown with higher aquatic plants; especially the Northern shallow area, at the mouths of rivers flowing into the reservoir, where reeds, reeds and sedges in places form a strip in width of 150-200 m Along the left Bank of the dam washed to protect the surrounding meadows from flooding.
Behind the dam is equipped with a drainage canal length of about 60 km, it is connected with the channel of the Gums. The oxygen content in water 0.3-1 mg / l in winter to almost 13 mg / l in the summer, especially in the surface layers of the water column, where algae that cause “blooms” of water. Rapid development, and then withering away to degrade the quality of water, causing the death of fish and its food organisms. The intensity of the process significantly affects the rate of water exchange in June and July. With sufficient autoceste and a slight warm-up reservoir “bloom” is less intense than in low flowage and prolonged hot weather. In the winter, too, is the lack of oxygen, resulting in suffocation of the fish, covering almost all the reservoir. This is due to the lowering of the water level and the flow from the basin of the Pripyat swamp waters with low oxygen content. In reservoir there are several sections, each characterized by specific features. So, Dnieper ples placed in the channel of the Dnieper and lay him in the floodplain above the confluence of the Dnieper and the Pripyat, is very shallow.
Same Pripyat and Plyos. Their upper parts are actually channels of the Dnieper and Pripyat with a little slower flow and higher water level. They differ little from those of their sites located above the zone of wedging out of the reservoir. Bottom, expanded portions of these ples seriopusly, densely overgrown with higher aquatic plants and algae. The same shallow and Teterevsky ples, however, the effect of the Teteriv river on the regime of the river and its flora and fauna is less than that of the Dnieper and Pripyat. The main ples — from the confluence of the Dnieper and Pripyat can be divided into three sections. The lower boundary of the upper part is C. Strakholissya. Here shallow water with depths up to 3 m are nearly three-quarters of the entire area. They are deep zerostat aquatic vegetation and algae. This area is strongly influenced Vaserstein ples.
In this regard, the hydrochemical features of the water on the left side have a lot in common with the Dnieper waters, and the right — pripiatskiy. The bottom of the deep feature of the middle part of the main ples is Rudnya Tolokonsky. Locations with depths to 3 m is not more than one third of the area. Properties of water depend on the amount of mixing of the upper waters of the above and Teterivsky ples. The lower part of the main ples that occupies the space from Ore Tolokonnikova to the dam of the Kiev hydroelectric station, deep — water. Depending on the water regime in vodohranilishe distinguish between drainage area and area of permanent flooding. Within the drainage area allocate subbands temporary stopki. She is flooded with srediny March to the end of June. Here is meadow vegetation. Here and swim in the spring fish for breeding. Here are the rapidly developing animal and vegetable organisms, which, together with flood waters demolished to the reservoir. They provide it feed different groups of animals, including fish, or affect the activity of various organisms and water quality. A characteristic feature of the Kiev reservoir, located on the riverbed of the Dnieper above the rest from reservoirs, is that there is formed a main flow of the Dnieper, and in the spring there is a big difference in water levels between the upper part and the primary surface. The spring flood flooded large areas along the riverbeds of the Dnieper and Pripyat and those adjacent to the top of the reservoir. In addition, it has an open top, allows you to fish under adverse conditions for reproduction and migrate into the Dnieper and Pripyat.
In this case, the waters of the Kiev reservoir is a kind of analogue of the Dnieper-bug estuary from which fish migrated for spawning to the lower reaches of the Dnieper, and some of them rose above Kiev. Such migration is carried out with fish of the Kiev reservoir as beyond its top, and in the tributaries. In the mid 70’s of the twentieth century, they described the bream, which is avoiding “blooming” water in the Kiev reservoir climbed up the Dnieper river for tens of kilometers. From the mouth of Grouse in April bream was raised in his direction, and after spawning during April and June returned to the reservoir. At the same time same movement was performed and bream. In September, well defined wintering and spawning migration in second half of October, its schools appear in the top of the reservoir, and in November (mainly individuals of older age) — the Grouse and the Already rising during the winter in their beds at a distance of 30-50 km from the mouth. The same migration described in pike, pike-perch etc. Until the reservoir they were not visible from the place of feeding, wintering and spawning of these fish was located almost next door. But this topic requires a separate light. And yet, the Kiev reservoir is characterized by good flow, an open top and retaining many areas where the habitat of the fish are close to those that were in before the construction of the dam. Therefore, it preserved almost all types of fish, but changed the quantitative distribution of representatives of the fishing population.
Sharply reduced the number of fish whose reproduction needs a clean sandy bottom and fast current — klepci, Chub, Podust, barbel, IDE, Jorge, Nosara the like. Their conditions of reproduction are very deteriorated in connection with the reduction of flowage. The mass of steel roach, pike, tench, bream, Zope, silver crucian carp, bleak, Rudd, perch, a fish belonging to the lakes complex. Also there are catfish and sabrefish. It should be noted that the Kiev reservoir — the only one which preserved favorable conditions for reproduction of Sichel. Just in time for its population should be prudent: it is a real representative for inclusion in the Red book of Ukraine, because it is listed in the Red book of the International Union for conservation of nature (1996).
In the reservoir possessed carp, silver carp, hybrids of carp and crucian carp, carp, Amur, silver carp, white Amur, pike-perch. In the lake region occasionally come across a script, pike, perch, tench, Chub. Often you can find roach, bream, Rudd, Podust, more common — Dace, bleak, gudgeon and other low-value fish. Close ratio and fish in the Dnieper spur. Generally, in reservoir there are more than 40 species of fish. The abundance of fishes of the Kiev reservoir are mainly influenced by natural factors and human activities.
Only in the spring of 2005, directly to the closure of fisheries before the spawning period, from the Kiev reservoir were lowered to the water, resulting in the former island became a part of the coastline where you can drive cars. Even worse, the picture is recorded in photographs of witnesses: an area of 4-5 m2 can be counted 50-60 dead fish, the mass of each of which is not less than 300 g, or 1 m 2 not less than 10 fish. In terms of 1 hectares weight of the fish, the dead, up to 3 t And how many acres were in the waters of the reservoir, no one will say. As it is impossible to determine the weight of the fish remaining on the naked bottom and in the multiple networks of poachers. The total loss of fish due to a sudden descent of water in the reservoir is 3-5 thousand tons! That is, the restoration of fish stocks at the current level should be 10-15 years, and the population not get out of the waters of the reservoir not less 15-22. 5 tonnes.