Poland is famous for its hunting grounds. Despite the large population density, animal here so that the default autocollection plan of shooting, something where animals are causing damage to crops.
The abundance of game in Poland due to favorable climatic conditions, presence of large forests and of course the first proper organisation of hunting. In this issue, I will take a closer look.
Hunting management is responsible for State administration of the Union of hunters of Poland led by the Minister of forestry and woodworking industry. At the same Ministry of works, the Council of State hunters that have deliberative rights and directly responsible for the activities of the national hunting Union.
Hunting in Poland
Administrative-hunting functions in the area assigned to the Department of agriculture and forestry. When the bureaux of the commissions hunters with consultative powers and is responsible for the activities of katsouda in the respective voivodship and Poviat.
The Polish hunters ‘ Union has branches in every province and district; in the provinces, moreover, created hunting courts. District councils of the hunters in turn, include several primary hunting groups.
Every team of hunters enshrined the land, the area of which shall not be less than three thousand acres. The borders of the land, where possible, selected highways, Railways and field roads, rivers, and other clear landmarks.
The team is shooting strictly in accordance with the plan approved by the Bureau. The exceeding of target shooting is punishable by law. A large part of the game, particularly hares, Poland exports abroad.
Among hunters, the most common double barrel shotgun 16 gauge, imported from Russia, Germany, many of the rifles of the domestic production of Zbrojovka. Rifled guns are more often represented by factories in Germany and Austria.
Now directly about hunting. First of all the team members only accepted the one who passed tests for hunting. The group leader is in possession of a ticket for the right a single hunting license to shoot. The team begins the hunt until you bring it to the Forester, and only with his permission, goes to the hunting area. The Forester can throughout the day to be with hunters to control; if he is well aware of who came, their discipline, may not be accompanied by them, but in this case, after the hunt all participants of the hunt are required to report to him and to present a taken game.
In many provinces of the North of the country, hunting for quail is closed due to the rarity of this bird. But is common here shooting ducks and geese on flights. Coots Polish hunter shoots rare, although in the Northern part of Poland a lot of them, coots are kept even on the lakes, whose shores are entirely occupied settlements. These birds can often be seen with domestic ducks.
With regard to the annual plan of shooting, it is different and depends on the size of the rim, the amount of it game, game of the prevalence of particular diseases, etc., for example, in the past season were allowed to shoot three male deer, six deer, eight deer, six hogs. One of the plan was not, as the rim of the forest, not the field.
Specialists hunting and forestry in Poland, preparing the special faculties of the universities in Warsaw, Poznan and Krakow. Sections of hunting are an integral part of textbooks on forestry for schools and colleges.
Hunting dog breeding in Poland paporotna lead dog alliances. They plan and supervise the dog, draw up documentation and arrange at the scale of provinces and throughout the country testing and exhibitions. In recent years, the Polish hunters prefer Terriers and setters. Smooth-haired cops have become rare.
Quite popular in the country and trap shooting, competitions are held regularly on the primacy of the provinces and country.
The Polish hunters, as in other European countries, has its own dialect. For example, at a meeting on hunting arrows greet each other not the usual — “good day”, and “sales Bor!”. Among them alive many old traditions. For example, the hunter laid a large animal, receives from huntsman twig dipped in the blood of the animal. He pins it to his hat or cap and has the right to wear it the whole day. A beginner, for the first time killed a large animal, must be anointed with the blood of the beast using the same twigs that only after this ritual can be attached to the hat.
The terms of hunting in Poland
The types of hunting fauna (except for harmful predators) to be protected. The terms of hunting on some species may be reduced on the proposal of the forestry Council of the hunters or of the Council of nature conservation. Forest and agricultural authorities to allocate hunting, inhabited by capercaillie, black grouse and grouse for their protection. A list of such hunting must be published in the local press.
The terms of hunting in Poland is quite long. They reflect the biological characteristics of each species of hunting fauna, as well as pursue the goal of obtaining the most valuable products. For example, given the low numbers of capercaillie and black grouse, hunting them is only allowed on the current, and duck hunting in the spring is prohibited. For best horns as trophy hunting for deer is allowed from August and continues till the reset of the horns. For a feathery game autumn hunting is allowed when the game usmaterial. So, the young pheasants-roosters for the beginning of hunting season, the first of October, taking the full adult coloration and because hunting is allowed only on males, they cannot be confused with a female. Fox, raccoon, and weasel are recognized as pests, and hunting them is allowed all year round.
Quite free time hunting limited to the strict rules of shooting. When the plan of shooting the hunt is stopped, but the long period of hunting allow you to perform quite a large plan of the shooting.
Hunting traditions in Poland
As in all European countries, in Poland respected the traditions of hunting, the signal pipe, the layout of the killed game after collective hunts and the presentation of the woody branches to the hunter, to shoot big game.
Judging by those requirements that apply to the hunter when joining the society by a limited number of hunters and the relatively high monetary contributions to be a hunter can only be a person who enjoys hunting, understanding its economic value, as well as the proper use and nature protection in the national interest.
Catching game in Poland
Ungulates are almost not catch, because all hunting land is already quite populated by them, and the resettlement is not necessary. Other reasons for trapping ungulates there.
In the season 1969/70, was captured only 11 deer, 19 fallow deer and ROE deer 180.
Another picture with the trapping of small game, which is exported in live form. In the hunting season 1969/70 was captured 107,3 thousand birds, 72.1 thousand of 67,1 thousand pheasants and partridges. Part of the pheasants and partridges are caught for breeding. It is interesting to note that pheasants are caught more than shoot. Catching against the shooting in the season 1969/70 amounted to 122 %.
Hares are caught 20% in relation to the shooting and grouse — 15 %. Hares are encouraged to catch where the density reaches 30 goals for 100 hectares. During the trapping of rabbits helps the device smokescreen parallel to the paddock in the wind. To do this, lay 8-10 smoke bombs after approximately 100 m, which increases the culling by 20-25 %. If you compare the size of using the game with the number specified in the account, you get a high percentage shooting. Deer and deer shoot more than 20, and boars — 56 %. These numbers are close to the norms of offspring, which indicates a high level of farming. Shooting small game, along with trapping also indicates the high use. When catching and shooting take 20 %; the total number of birds, 35% pheasants and 26% of partridges.
Polish Association of hunters in the last decade has been actively and profitably engaged in breeding of poultry, resulting in significant income. In 1967 when breeding pheasants in 11 farms from 2538 ewes and 411 cocks were received 54 028 heads of youngsters, or an average of 21 Chicks from one female. Fenced area for breeding pheasants in these farms was only 127 hectares Number of breeding stock in them increases every year. In 1962, the livestock production amounted to 1350 head, and in 1967-2949, i.e. more than doubled. From one female during this period, the average received 48 eggs and maximum-57. Grown young pheasants partially released into hunting, but a large part is exported.
More than just a free breeding pheasants engaged in hunting groups in the Krakow province, where there are 297 farms with a total area of 1378,3 thousand hectares with an average area of farms 4640 ha. For breeding pheasants began in the mid-fifties, increasing the number of livestock by 1960, from 11.8 thousand to 52.1 thousand heads. For every thousand hectares of hunting grounds account for about 40 pheasants. Shooting pheasants in the Krakow Voivodeship in the season 1960/61, amounted to 4.2 thousand heads, and in the season 1967/68-9.4 thousand, or 18 % of the shooting in Poland.
The procedure for the use of hunting products is regulated by the instructions issued by the Ministry of forestry and woodworking industry, in coordination with the Union of hunters. The bulk of this production game hunters rent to meet local needs through a distribution network and for export. Shot game buys self-supporting enterprise of the Forest, which sells forest products. Small game pass one by one. In 1968/69, was produced 5378 tons of game meat, of which 4128 t, or 76.7 percent, was rented, and 23 % used by hunters. Ungulates were put 88.7% of carcasses, and small game-61,4% of carcasses. The share of hunters had approximately 9.3 million kg of ungulates, and one of the hunter — about 10-15 kg and 7 PCs small game, not counting the other game (snipe, marsh fowl, and parts of ducks).
Hunting groups clean revolution game significant revenues coming for their needs, but mostly on the organization of shooting. Taking into account that a large part of the game is on sale and for export, must meet strict requirements to the quality of the delivered products and compliance with sanitary rules. Carcasses of big game and small carcasses should be properly handled, chilled and immediately delivered to the delivery points in accordance with the special instructions for the preparation of the carcasses for delivery. Take a look at some of the provisions of this instruction.
Killed a large animal needs to be gutted and guts have to bury it. The skin should not be removed, but only cut along his chest, and groins are allowed to make an incision no longer than 25-30 cm. After that the carcass should hang below it stretched, while in the groins make the spacers. Hang it in a cool ventilated place. After cooling, the carcass of a moose, deer and wild boar need to get to the place of delivery within 12 h, and deer — over 8 hours In case of impossibility to deliver the carcass within the specified period, the hunters are obliged to take all measures to preserve the carcass. The carcasses sit in the skin and head. The bulls horns are sawn off along the line of the forehead, and sometimes with the head as a trophy, the carcass is not permitted to wash, wipe with grass, moss, etc. are Unacceptable pollution and severe bruising. Carcasses destined for export, must have hit the front part of the abdomen. Depending on the damage when shooting and compliance when processing, … the carcass is divided into two quality classes.
Processing of carcasses, shipping and delivery is entrusted to the most experienced hunters, knowing well the requirements for the delivery of hotproducts and past practice.
Often, carcasses are sent by railway Express cargo, while the recipient is immediately apprised of the expulsion of the carcass. In the accompanying documents indicate where and when the animal is killed. Individual shooting big game get hunters, knowing the order of delivery of the carcasses, they must have on hand all the documents until the train forms to send carcasses urgent cargo. The carcass of a deer grade 1 for export must meet the following requirements:
Body weight: Adult males and females 50 kg (+5 %), calves males and females 20 kg (±5 %).
Form processing: the Carcass is stretched in a hanging or lying position, is not deformed, it is permissible garter limb; permitted the delivery of ink from the head without it.
Color : Hair grey-brown, the same hue, the meat should be bright red in color, in places cut brilliant.
Smell: Typical of a dead deer, no other odor, and no steaming and rotten.
Consistency: fresh carcass is supple and elastic. Frozen — extinguishing solid when tapped should sound.
Purity mascara: the outside Surface is clean, without soiling with blood, the hair as the stroking does not fall beams from the root. The carcass is well combed with comb or brush, allowed to baldness 5 cm in diameter. Unacceptable eggs or larvae of flies. Inside there should not be residues of giblets, pine needles, grass, etc., and large clots of dried blood.
Damage to carcasses: Animal should be shot with a bullet in the front part of the body, without damaging the shot of butt, fillet or belly.
Abdomen: No residues of the intestines, cleaned up the front of the neck.
For carcasses 2 grade requirements are lower in respect of reducing weight, increasing bald spots and some other parameters, but in General, the carcass should be well treated. The carcass of a ROE deer 1 class must weigh at least 12 kg and wild boar from 25 to 100 kg.
Carcass of a hare should be frozen and not gutted, the weight of the carcasses grade 1 3.2 kg, class 2 2. Eyes should be covered with ears and whole head was wrapped in parchment paper with a drawstring at the neck. The carcass is stretched in a hanging position and not deformed. The rear legs are connected in the longitudinal position. Frozen carcass when tapped should sound. It should be clean and free from caked blood, no sand, ice-cubes or snow; the hair is well combed with a wire brush, the hair does not come out bunches. Valid bald to 6 cm2. Urine should be pressed immediately after shooting. The smell is typical. The eyeball should completely fill the cavity, Rogovina without damage.
As can be seen, the game for exports must be properly shot and processed, which requires hunters to not only knowledge, but also a great experience. Partridges and pheasants are also exported in live form in compliance with high requirements. Poland in the number of exporters of live game occupies a leading position in the world.
Account of hunting fauna in Poland
The accounting game is carried out every year by 31 March of each year. This period in Poland is called biological, because this time is determined by the breeding stock, which are a basis for all further calculations of possible offspring and shooting.
Records of big game (moose, deer, ROE deer, wild boar, etc.) will be subject to monitoring throughout the year on forage clearings, systematic registration of all meetings, an accurate and strict accounting of the shooting. In the end, be a full idea about the number of livestock, distribution on territory, sex and age composition of the herd.
In winter, after the shooting, carried out simultaneous control and accounting traces utilizing the method of tracking, i.e. the motion on the trail, to determine the exact number of heads, number of males, females and calves in each group or solitary animals.
Because in the winter spend feeding ungulates, which remain close to the feeders and feed the field, the accounting is easier and guarantees accurate data.
The hares are given a bookmark method sample plots in the form of tapes with a length up to about 4 and a width of 100 m every 15 m are the field workers, who count all running out of plot when you run the hares. The sample area in advance to note in the nature of columns two meters in 500 m. the record is carried out in different habitat areas and where carried out the shooting and where he was not.
The number of ptarmigan is determined by counting flocks and number of individuals in places of concentration of these birds in the winter. They tend to concentrate in areas with natural forage or around feeding areas. Pheasants in winter kept in the area feeding, where they are easy to take into account, counting for several days.
Comparing accounting data over several years, we can say that the number of hunting fauna of the main types is determined so precisely that the calculation of offspring and shooting allowing you to have the number game in the sizes established by the plan.
In 1969 the number of big game compared to 1960 has increased by only 2 %, and the fine was reduced by 9 %.
According to the records, on March 31, 1969, in Poland, the moose was 917 units, deer 45.9 thousand, 3.4 thousand fallow deer, ROE deer 229,2 million, boars – 47,1 thousand, 58.9 per thousand foxes, hares 3204 thousand, 373,1 thousand pheasants and partridges 1988,5 thousand.
In Poland quite a lot of rabbits, about 50 thousand units Hunting them are very intense, but in a large number die from maximoose, but despite that multiply rapidly and their population in the last 25 years has been stable.
In addition to these types of hoofed animals, a small number of mouflons and Sika deer, introduced to Poland for acclimatization, but they are not yet hunted.
In small numbers the wolf, lynx, raccoon, otter, badger, marten, squirrel, mole and rabbit. Game birds — a few great bustard, capercaillie, black grouse and almost all kinds of marsh fowl. Ducks are fairly numerous, but shooting them is not planned, although conducted on a large scale.
In bustard, capercaillie and black grouse almost never hunt or hunt in very limited sizes.
In Poland, lead veterinary supervision of hunting fauna. It is known that many species of wild animals are carriers of infectious diseases and in contact with livestock pose a danger. In this regard, all shot game is subjected to veterinary inspection. Only for the first half of 1971 was recorded in 452 patients Fox, (70,6 %), 77 cats (12 %), 55 dogs (8,6 %), 8 badgers (1,3 %), 7 deer (1,1 %), 6 raccoons (0,9 %), deer, elk, and one other animal 33 (5.5 per cent), and a total of 640 sick animals.
Forest protection in Poland
In order to protect forests manual recommends three methods of prevention or reduction of damage caused by ungulates — biological, chemical and mechanical. Biological method is considered the most important and rational. It is the maintenance of animal numbers to such an extent that the harm was minimal. It should be provided with sufficient natural feed, and an annual shooting of up to 30% or more if the density exceeded the norm.
The biological method of protection of hoofed animals includes improving feeding conditions: the unit forage meadows, planting of tree and shrub species, particularly on forest edges. Such species include oak, beech, sycamore, Linden, maple, etc. in addition, we recommend the establishment of zones of peace, the device of reservoirs, salt licks, and rational feeding.
Method of protection of forests from damage by animals is the temporary or permanent fences, scare shooting, saber, etc. In high-value plantings practiced wrapping trunks to height of 1.8 m mesh and other materials.
The chemical is used primarily to save from eating of the kidneys, especially riding, in the beginning of the growing season by spraying repellent liquids and coatings with special ointments. It is recommended a few recipes, including:
- Wheat flour 100 parts;
- Alum, 20 parts;
- Formalin 10 parts;
- Quinine — 10 parts;
- Water To desired consistency for spraying.
- Zinc oxide — part 1;
- Wheat flour — 1 part;
- Glycerin — 1 part;
- Water — on demand.
- White gelatin and 2.4 parts;
- Wheat flour and 5.6 parts;
- Glycerin — 72,0 parts;
- Bura — 20.0 parts;
- Water — on demand.
The density can be increased or decreased by agreement with interested organizations. So, if the damage in the forest is estimated less than 5 zlotys per 1 ha, the number of ungulates can be increased. In forest areas with an area of 700 hectares, located among fields are not allowed to breed nor deer, nor wild boars.
Despite a number of measures to protect forests and fields, from damage, harm ungulates, still great. Suffice it to say that in 1969 the damage on the field paid 84.7 million zlotys, and in 1970 at 61.1 million zlotys.
Significant reduction of damage in 1970 compared to 1969 is due to increased security measures, which were intensively carried out after the orders of the Ministry of forestry and woodworking industry, published in February 1970, the same order of forest organizations the right to reduce the density to a minimum. For example, for the 1 fertility rate is the maximum number of 25 goals set a density of 10 goals. 2 8 estimated productivity for 3 – 7 goals. Such limitation of the number of ungulates in the forest due to the fact that the damage inflicted on planted forests, are not paid, and therefore forestry workers aim to keep it to a minimum.
Weapons and hunting trophies exhibition in Poland
The members of the hunting society who pass the exam get the right to hunt for small game and can be purchased for personal use shotgun.
The hunting of male moose, reindeer and ROE deer is allowed only for those hunters who passed the examinations for selection to shooting, they have the right to purchase rifles.
Free hunting for ungulates no, have strict rules about shooting, processing of the carcasses and putting them.
At the end of each hunting season hunters to shoot males of hoofed animals, are obliged to present the trophy to the Republican Union of hunters. A special Commission estimates the trophies and organizes the demonstration in the provincial councils of the hunters in order to promote hunting.
Republican exhibition of trophies was organized in 1970 by the Polish Association of hunters participated in the international exhibitions of hunting trophies in 1971 in Florence and Budapest