The registration of hunting animals in the territory of the Russian Federation is carried out according to uniform methods approved by the Main Administration of Hunting and Reserve. Prior to the development and approval of a single set of methods of accounting for all types of hunting resources, and this is a serious long-term work, in the practice of hunting economy, accounting work for a number of species is conducted in accordance with the scientific and methodological recommendations of hunting agencies, scientists and hunting specialists. In many areas of improvement of accounting work, there are already methodical instructions.
According to the Regulations on the State Service for the Accounting of Hunting Resources of the Russian Federation, the registration of hunting animals in designated hunting areas is carried out by the hunting user and by these organizations.
The registration of hunting animals is carried out by district hunting specialists, hunting control officers, hunting managers of commercial and sports enterprises, hunters of hunting farms; to the accounts attract qualified professional hunters. In the regions, the organization of accounting activities and the collection of accounting material is carried out by a regional hunting guide. In hunting farms, hunting farms of hunters’ societies, the organization of accounting works is carried out by a game hunter.
Land works in the regions are carried out by accountants, including qualified professional hunters. The regional hunting manager provides the accountants with forms and brief instructions for conducting surveys, conducts oral instruction on the methods, assigns the deadlines for submitting works and submitting the completed registration forms in duplicate.
The main attention in accounting work directly on the hunting areas of the industrial farms of the Far North applies to fur-bearing game animals. Ungulate animals in large areas are accounted, as a rule, by air means.
Winter registration of game animals
The route card is filled in the accommodation. The number of tracks of different species of animals is calculated according to the route scheme for different lands, transfer data for bird encounters, the length of the route to the categories of land, fill in all the other graphs. Each route is filled in with a separate card.
The traces of the daily legacy of animals are carried out during the entire period of registration. This work is entrusted to the most knowledgeable and competent hunters. It is advisable that each accountant has dried out the daily legacies of different species of animals.
To determine the number of hunting animals according to the materials of the winter routing, it is necessary to know the average length of the course of each species. This value is calculated on the basis of a sufficiently large number of daily traces of individual animals.
Many animals during the day can repeatedly go to bed, so the definition of the prescription of the track in some cases is difficult. In order to avoid mistakes, it should be carried out a day after at least a small powder.
Some ungulates have a clear daily rhythm: the length of their tracks can be determined exactly as the daily interval as follows. On the first day, the accountant leaves the grounds and finds a beast on a fresh trail. When approaching the beast (which can be judged by the state of the track) extreme caution is necessary in order not to disturb the pursued animal. The trail of the daily trail is conducted on the second day “in the way” from the place of the first meeting to the point of its re-discovery. Thus it is necessary so to calculate speed of the movement to catch up the animal in 24 hours after the first meeting. When trolling, it is not advisable to frighten the beast until it is registered visually, which requires the custodian to be extremely careful. If the beast is still scared, it is usually easy to establish by the nature of the track or the noise of the escaping animal.
Sometimes it is possible to hatch individual individuals for two, three or more days. The description of such a move is of great value, since it is equivalent to two, three, etc. trolling. If such a move is lost, when recording at the top of the trolling card, you should indicate that this is a two-, three-, four-day course of the beast. Sometimes a herd (roe deer, elk, deer), a brood (wild boar) or a pair of beasts are tended. In this case, the number of individuals in the observed group is indicated next to the name of the species of the beast, at the top of the card.
The commercial hunter, as he accumulates the experience of a long stay in hunting grounds, learns very complex patterns of behavior of wild animals and birds, knows their way of life very well, which makes it possible to carry out qualified accounting.
Weather. For conducting tropleny favorable days with moderate frost, no precipitation and wind, bearing a drizzle. In days with snowfalls, snowstorms or tingling, where the beast leaves no traces or leaves only poorly visible prints, it is impossible to carry out the work.
You should have a notebook of a large format or a tablet, a compass and a tape measure (you can use a stick with the marks on it instead of a tape measure).
It is more convenient to work together. In this case, after finding the track, the surveyors diverge: one follows the trail to the foot or the place where the beast settles, and the second – the trophe trail “in the heel” to the place where the beast was after the powder. Thus, the entire daily course of the animal is completely eradicated. If the accountant works alone, he, depending on local conditions, tropic first on the trail or “in the heel”, and then in the opposite direction.
Measurement of the length of the daily course. The length of the move of the beast is measured in steps. Depending on the depth and condition of the snow, as well as whether a person walks on foot or on skis, the step length varies very much. Therefore, to measure your step follows during each trail several times. To do this, measure 10 steps and the result is divided by 10. The average length of the step (accurate to 1 cm) is recorded in the book.
Recording. The trail tracking plan is schematically sketched in a book or on a tablet. The number of steps is also recorded in the same scheme. It is advisable to measure on small segments (for example, from the stalk to the feeding place, during feeding, from the feeding place to the site where the animal was standing, etc.). On these segments, it is noted, on what grounds the beast walked. When they return home, they fill in the “tracing card” and redraw the tracing scheme on its back. A card of the trail is handed over to the regional hunter or to another person responsible for registration work in the district.
Processing of accounting data. The data of several routes of the same accountant is summarized and entered into the table in a separate line. Fold the length of the route for each category of land and the number of animals encountered in each category of land.
Then determine the metering indicator Pu: the number of tracks is divided by the length of the route (km) and multiplied by 10, the average number of track meetings per 10 km of the route is obtained.
To determine the density of the population, the indicator of counting (the number of tracks per 10 km of the route) is multiplied by the recalculating coefficient K. It is equal to the value of 1.57 divided by the average length (km) of the daily course of the beast. The coefficient is determined in the Center of the State Statistics of the Russian Federation and reported to the regional hunting organizations. It can be calculated and according to the data of trolling in the area, if for each species of animals a lot of individual trails were carried out. The coefficient can also be determined when comparing animal accounts on trial plots and routes, if combined accounting is conducted in the same places and at the same time.
example. On the site of 300 hectares, 8 hares were recorded. In these places, on the 10 km of the route, an average of 24.3 tracks of the hare are found. The density of the population of rabbits at the site of the site is P = (8: 300) x 1000 = 26.7 individuals per 1000 ha. The recalculation coefficient will be K = P / D = 26.7 / 24.3 = 1.1.
If all names of values are met, population density is obtained in individuals per 1000 hectares.
Main types of wild ungulates
The most common is the aerial inventory of ungulates, which is determined by the ease of surveying significant areas and the possibility of obtaining a significant amount of primary material. The aerial surveys with the use of photo equipment in determining the number of ungulate populations (deer wild northern) in the open areas of the tundra and the visual recording of moose in the forest zone have become very popular.
For the hunting hunter, the most suitable for counting meetings and observed traces of life. Having been for a long time on his site, the fishers usually know quite accurately how many and where the moose are kept; he is able to mark this on the map of the plot as applied to the area
habitat. So, if the animals keep in the floodplain, the number of moose is calculated per 1,000 hectares of these lands, and so on. The exception is the so-called “stands”, when animals gather in winter from nearby lands to relatively small fodder and snowless areas. The density of the population, that is, the number of animals per 1,000 hectares of such land, will not be characteristic of all other types of land, even similar to the “stub”, but where the moose for some reason are not kept in such numbers. Visual accounting in this case should be carried out exactly by “stables”.
Accounting for excrement in winter can be carried out both in the elk, and in deer and roe deer. During the period of feeding with wood fodders, that is in winter, the excrement of ungulates differs in appearance from those given at other seasons. The number of stools in elk is relatively stable. Knowing the number of excrements left for a certain period of time, we can determine their number per animal for the entire winter season. The number of excrement varies depending on the habitat and sex and age structure of the animal population.
Accounting is conducted in early spring. To do this, you need to know the duration of the period of use of wood fodder and the average number of excrements per day. The beginning of the period of feeding with winter fodder coincides with the appearance of autumn coloring of vegetation, and the ending – with the appearance of the first leaves in the moose eaten by elk: willow, aspen, birch and mountain ash. The duration of the feeding period for winter fodder in the elk is on average 200 days.
The average number of defecations per one “average” elk is determined by tracing the diurnal course of the beast in the area of accounting work. Thus, in the northern regions, one to one adult moose accounts for 12-17 heaps of excrement per day.
Determination of the winter livestock of animals is possible only in places with a relatively constant number of animals. Accounting is carried out immediately after the snow falls, before the appearance of the grass cover. Registration routes 4 m in width (the distance at which excrement can be clearly seen) is laid in all types of lands, in proportion to their area, that is, in larger areas, more routes are laid and, on the contrary, in smaller ones, fewer routes are laid. Discovered old heaps of excrement, which are usually covered with last year’s grass and have a more intense black color, and are burned out in the sun, are not counted. Summarizing, by simple arithmetic calculations, it is possible to determine the density of the moose population in certain areas in the past winter, and consequently, to have a certain forecast for the next hunting season.
The habitat of the moose is 100 thousand hectares; duration of allocation of moose winter excrement 200 days; the daily number of defecations (the number of heaps on average per animal) 15; total length of the route is 120 km; accounting area (the area of the registration tape) 0,4х120 = 48 hectares; number of counted excrements 240. Number of heaps per thousand hectares = 1000х240 / 48 = 5000. Elk density (individuals per thousand hectares) = 5000 / 200х15 = 1.6. The total number of moose (individuals) = 1.6×100 = 160.
Accounting for fur animals
Accounting for the number of sables. According to the current methodological recommendations for accounting for the number of sables, this work is recommended to be carried out at the end or after the end of the fishery, in February – March, before the arrival of the nap. The technique of accounting for sable is different depending on the methods of accounting.
Route Relative Accounting in Tracks. Unlike absolute counts (called quantitative ones), in case of relative registration, not individuals of animals are registered, but their fresh, no more than a day’s prescription, traces crossing the route. The accountant does not undertake the task of determining the number of individuals (sables) and thereby avoids mistakes. The indicator of registration is the number of tracks per 10 km of the route (by type of land). Relative accounting is conducted on all routes on hunting grounds, i.e. on accounting sites and during transitions from one site to another. Counters continuously monitor the length of the route on the map, the duration of the move (by the clock) and the eye (with subsequent reconciliation on the map).
Routes are crossed by lands and forests with no choice, sticking to approximately one direction. In mountain forest valleys they go “half a dozen”, not repeating the small bends of the river. In the podgoltsevom belt pass the edges of stands and cedar stlanica.
On the route, the outline is M 1:10 000 and 1:25 000.
Register all traces of not more than a day’s prescription, including all traces of animals that cross the route several times. A single daily trace is taken for one trace, double and reverse – for two. Fat count for one trace (if the beast left the veins in the direction from which it came); the path is taken in four tracks. If the account is conducted in the footsteps of a two-day old, the number of them is divided into two. For three or more daily powders, only fresh one-day trails are taken into account to avoid confusion. The outline of the route, drawn on the same scale in the evening on a large scale scheme, is the main primary accounting document.
Further calculate the indicator of relative registration – the number of tracks per 10 km of the route by type of land. For 100 thousand hectares of land an approximate standard length of the route is 30 km.
Accounting for sables on test plots (mapping sable distribution) is the main method of absolute (quantitative) accounting. Sables are counted on their footprints on relatively small sites, differing in composition, feed capacity, or degree of land reclamation.
Animals are mobile, the number of them on the record site changes over time. Therefore, to obtain calculated indicators of population density, several (at least three) test sites are laid in each type or complex of lands. Preferably the site is laid in the same type of land, however, it is rarely possible to choose such a site. More often lay the site in the characteristic for the area complexes of lands, guided by the choice of knowledge of the terrain and data of exploration routes. It is desirable that the registration area is limited to areas of unproductive or uncharacteristic sables – loaches, reddins, open dales. Usually the site includes a forest valley of a small river with streams and creeks flowing into it, or 2-3 adjacent valleys. The shape of the area is preferably round or square,
A site on which there are no traces or only one sable is taken into account does not give the right to calculate the population density of the animal. The boundaries of the site must be expanded to detect traces of at least two sables. With an expected density of less than one sable per 1000 hectares, the minimum area will be about 2.0 thousand hectares (20 km2), better – slightly larger. Smaller sites can be laid only at a density of 3 or more sables per 1000 hectares.
The trial site is traversed by a network of routes, with the same outlines as in the case of relative registration. The difference is that the accountant undertakes to determine the number of sables that left traces (crossed the route). Traces of individual animals are distinguished in size, semi-animal, individual characteristics and necessarily in the direction of the stroke. Traces belonging to the same sable are “grouped” on the outline (they are connected by a dotted line that repeats the movement of the animal). Errors in determining the number of individuals will be approximately the same in the direction of exaggeration or understatement and will largely overlap. The “accounted” sables from the outlines of the routes are transferred to the scheme of the test site: thus they map their location and count the number.
Routes pass the boundaries of the registration area, cross large homogeneous forest tracts and low-value land to fully characterize them. For 50 km2 of sable land, it is necessary to pass at least 70-100 km of registration routes: this means that if the routes are laid in parallel, they must pass from each other in 1 -1.5 km.
A multisector makes accounting difficult, therefore, it is advisable to cross out the “counted” traces of animals – “mash”, so that on the way back, or repeating the route, it’s easy to notice fresh tracks.
When conducting exploration work in non-industrial and sparsely populated sables, it is recommended to register on the route tape with the use of additional indicators and coefficients for calculating the reserve.
Accounting for the route tape, the width of which is the average length of the daily course of the sable, is widely used in winter routing.
To calculate the density, it is necessary, by means of the “model” sable, to obtain the average length of the daily course of the sable that is reliable for a given region and time.
Having ready indicators of relative accounting, calculate the density in a simplified way: the conversion factor (K = 1.57), taken from formula (1), multiplied by the number of tracks per 10 km of the route.
Accounting sable on the route tape, for the width of which the average diameter of the daily habitat of one animal is adopted, requires the accountant to have a special skill in “reading” the tracks, as well as when calculating the animals on the test site.
According to the technique of execution, the outlines of this account do not differ from the routes on the trial site: they are marked by all traces of one-day prescription, in the direction of which, to the magnitude and other characteristics determine the number of individuals crossing the route for a day. Traces belonging to one small animal are “grouped”. The width of the registration tape is determined by the tracking of “model” sables.
The protein is counted in the autumn, in the pre-fishing period. For the European part of the Russian Federation, the best time is October, for the regions of the North and Siberia – the second half of September, because at this time it is possible to take into account the cubs of the second brood that left the nests, while the total mass of animals basically has already completed the migrations. For accounting with husky pick up 3-5 routes in the most typical for this area natural conditions. The length of each route is 10-15 km.
The results of registration depend on the weather conditions that determine the activity of the protein and the effectiveness of the dog. The greatest influence is exerted by wind, air temperature and precipitation. Accounting is carried out at a wind speed of no more than 11-13 m / s, at which large branches fluctuate on trees. When the wind is more powerful, the dog not only hears the animal badly, but may not notice its movement. As a rule, when the wind is strong in dense dark coniferous plantations, the protein goes low, and in light coniferous or rarefied dark coniferous forests it is less active. It must also be taken into account that the forest weakens the strength of the wind.
To take into account the most favorable temperature of air from 2 to 5 ° C, but they can be carried out and at a temperature of -15 to 15 ° C. Lowering the temperature below -15 ° C reduces the activity of the animal, and a rise of more than 15 ° C worsens the dog’s performance, which adversely affects the credibility of counts due to the increase in the number of omissions. It is favorable for the accounts to raise the temperature after frosty weather, when the protein is active and long-feeding.
Routes are laid in typical squirrel lands, mainly in coniferous forests, in such a way as to cover all the features of relief and vegetation: adjoining forests, watershed massifs, fringes, decay. You can not keep records primarily in squirrel places, otherwise the data on the size of the animal will be overestimated.
To bookmark routes, you can use a quarterly network, but not roads and hiking trails, as the dog part of the route passes through them and, therefore, does not search for the animal.
Before carrying out of accounts prepare the elementary scheme of area of the future works and put on it routes. In addition, the accountant must have with him a compass and a clock, a notebook, pencils, forms of the route and preferably a pedometer.
Accounting of game animals with a dog
The dog should work well on the protein, have an even and fast “shuttle” or “circular” search, not further than 100-300 m from the accountant. A dog with a very wide or straightforward search is not suitable for accounting work.
The width of the registration tape is determined by the width of the dog’s search and is calculated by double increasing the distance from the line of the route to the site of detection of the squirrel by the dog, equaling 50-100 m in dark coniferous plantations, and 200-220 m in light coniferous stands. The distance is determined by counting the steps. In the presence of a pedometer, record its indicators at the beginning of the passage of each new type of habitat of the animal, indicating the age of the afforestation: spruce (ripe, ripening, middle-aged, young), etc. In the absence of a pedometer at the beginning of each new habitat, the animal records the time in hours and minutes , which makes it possible to calculate the length of the entire route and each habitat of the animal by the amount of time. Usually in forest areas, the walking speed of the accountant is 2 km / h, increasing to 3 km / h in burs,
The best way is to measure the route and its segments with a curvimeter or ruler on a large-scale map, for which you must first make a copy of the diagrams. In this case, the meeting places proteins directly on the circuit, which facilitates the recording and subsequent processing. Accounting is advisable to spend together.
At the beginning of the route, the accountant in the field diary records: a) the name of the farm, forestry or the nearest settlement and the location, in relation to it, of the route (distance in kilometers of the beginning of the route from the settlement); b) the accounting date (day, month, year); c) state of weather conditions – cloudiness, air temperature, wind force, precipitation, depth of snow cover and its condition; d) a brief description of the habitat – its type, the age of afforestation, the closeness of crowns, the presence of undergrowth and undergrowth of the main tree species (its density), the composition of the stand. For mixed stands, in order of decreasing, all tree species (for example, spruce forest with an admixture of pine and birch) are noted. Evaluate the yield of the main protein feeds: cones, seeds and fruits; e) time of the beginning of accounting in hours and minutes.
The dog is allowed into the search and begins to move along the route. During the entire route, the character of the dog’s search is noted: its width and coverage of the territory. In the presence of difficult-to-reach habitats, the time of narrowing the search and the width of the registration tape is noted. Note also the time of expansion of the search.
Начало облаивания белки также записывают в дневник (часы и минуты). После этого учетчик, подсчитывая шаги, по прямой подходит к месту полайки. Величину шага или пары шагов учетчик определяет заранее. Выяснив причину облаивания, он при обнаружении белки делает отметку в дневнике, записывает породу дерева. Отмечает наличие возле дерева погрызов зверька. Если белку высмотреть не удается, то при уверенности, что зверек все же на дереве, учетчик делает запись: белка найдена, но не обнаружена. Местонахождение белки он отмечает на схеме маршрута. Далее собаку берут на поводок, отводят от места полайки и снова пускают в поиск. В дневнике делают запись о времени начала поиска (часы и минуты).
At the end of the route registration, the time directly allocated to the passage of each habitat type is determined, and the length of the route segments is calculated. In the future, summaries are made about the types of habitats and, on the whole, on the route. Depending on the type of habitats, height of trees, closeness and development of crowns, the dog discovers one or another part of the protein available on the route tape. It is experimentally established that on average in dark coniferous lands it reveals 53%, and in light coniferous – 89% of animals inhabiting there. With a triple passage of the route (with the shooting of the animals), the dog, under favorable conditions, detects all the proteins.
Accounting for small cunts
Accounting for the number of small cunts – ermine, column, trochee – is carried out according to the ZMU method, but there are certain modifications.
The rocky can be counted in the footprints on the snow, laying test plots in 5-10 km2. The routes are laid approximately at the same distance from each other. Having met the tracks of the animal, they are treaded or bypassed, figuring out the area of its habitat, are mapped on a diagram: thus determining the number of animals inhabiting here. Accounting ermine on the route tape is less time-consuming. For this, they pass along the banks of streams and rivers, marking all the traces of animals that have been met, indicating their magnitude (large-K, medium-C, small-M). When processing accounting data, it is believed that each trace, differing in size from the neighboring one, belongs to another animal. Thus, the number of animals on the traversed route is taken into account.
On the same day, the average width of the daily course of the ermine is determined by tracing counts, by tracing the courses. For the width of the registration tape take the average width of the diurnal course of the animal. In rich with mice-like rodents, the approximate standard of the average length of the daily course of the ermine is 230-270 m in the male and 115-135 m in the female. In areas with a smaller availability of feed, the animal walks more widely and its individual plot is larger. If there are enough broad river routes, the routes are laid parallel at a distance of 500 m from each other (the width of the route).
Accounting for mink and otter
Accounting for the number of mink can also be carried out in the summer, best with a dog-like dog on the living holes of the animal along the coastline. However, more reliable data are obtained with the winter account of the burrow in the footprints. The mink track is paired, round in shape, similar to the trace of other cunts. On the jumps, the mink makes triple and quadruple tracks, in which the prints of the hind legs are slightly behind the forelegs. Traces of females are smaller than those of males.
In the beginning of winter, before the snow falls, the accountant goes around the shore of the reservoir, the river, inspects the coastal strip, marks the traces of the mink. Vaults of the animal are located up to 50 m from the shore, in winter the burrows are more often located near the water. Accounting is carried out at the beginning of winter due to the fact that with the formation of voids under the ice, with the onset of severe frosts and the fall of deep snow, the animal rarely begins to surface. Therefore, large errors are possible in the direction of understating its numbers when accounting.
Traces of mink, met at a distance of more than 250 m from each other, are taken for the tracks of another animal. Accounting is carried out by means of continuous bypassing of coasts on a registration route. The indicator of population density of mink is calculated in relation to the length of the coastline, expressed in kilometers. It is not possible to extrapolate the obtained indices to the entire length of the shoreline, if it is not surveyed. It must be borne in mind that the mink does not hold in the otter habitat.
The otter is accounted for in the same way, but in connection with its more significant movement in the land, the length of the registration routes should be much larger. Accounting is carried out before the fall of deep snow, and the weak development of the subglacial cavities during this period allows to better register traces of the life of the beast.
Since otters live in families, traces of an adult female with several young, traces of which are noticeably smaller, are often found on the shoreline. The otter concentration in winter near unfreezing places makes it easier to count. A distinctive feature – the presence of often round produsin, which uses the beast. With a sufficiently deep snow on it remains a groove from the belly and tail of the otter. Calculate the indicator of population density in relation to the length of the shoreline.
Accounting Arctic Fox
In the Autonomous Okrugs of the Far North, there is a “vulture service” of Arctic fox, which represents the annual prediction of the size of the animal. Necessary for forecasting, counting of numbers is carried out according to the Arctic fox, which, as a rule, is localized in the tundra zone. The burrows are located on the elevations of the relief, on well drained places, relatively compact. In the presence of extensive swampy nizin foxes settle on hills in a complex system of holes. On the contrary, in hilly tundra, the norovishcha are characterized by group or single locations.
The accounting and methodological group of the district staff of the “harvest service” determines the test sites for recording the number of Arctic foxes, depending on the qualifications of the recorders and accounting points up to 50 km2 or more. In isolated areas or throughout the area, inhabited burrows are identified, the number of youngsters on average per family is determined by the observation method and the average composition of the family is calculated according to habitable burrows. At the beginning of summer (June) young growth does not go far from the burrow, so such calculations can be quite accurate. Based on the average composition of the family and the number of employed burrows, it is possible to determine the approximate number of Arctic foxes.
Since most surveys are carried out at the same places of concentration of Arctic fox during the breeding season, long-term accumulation of data and experience of accountants can reduce the duration of work. In order to forecast the abundance, we study the condition of the fodder base of polar fox, primarily the mouse, and other natural factors.
Accounting for the number of foxes “as well as foxes, are carried along the burrows during the breeding season, in the forest zone – by salary (extremely rare). However, the most appropriate way is to take the relative account of the fox on the tracks on the linear routes using the ZMU technique.
The current methodological guidelines for calculating the number of muskrats provide for several methods of accounting. Depending on natural conditions and resources, muskrat counts can be continuous and selective. Sampling is carried out by laying trial plots of 100 to 200 hectares in size so that they cover at least 10% of the muskrat area. Several typical lakes can be distinguished as test sites; The hunting area can also be a registration area. In extensive fishing areas in large reservoirs, the relative count of muskrat on the same permanent routes in spring and autumn is practiced.
Features of registration work in field conditions. The experience of practical on-farm hunting permits makes it possible to use certain characteristics of certain types of game animals in the course of accounting work.
Sable. Other things being equal, the indices of the population density of the species change in different forest types from maximum to minimum in the following sequence: in a dark coniferous taiga with an admixture of cedar; in spruce-fir taiga (grassy-shrub, littered, overmature); in larch forests grassy-shrubby or young growth on old felling and felling (with small-leaved renewal); in other types of forest; in uncharacteristic areas (mountain tundra and meadows, broad maria, swamps, etc.).
For sable in a number of areas, movements (2 to 3-year cycles) are typical for the lower reaches of the rivers, or, on the contrary, the animals only visit the floodplain only periodically, mainly keep on the slopes of ridges. This situation can significantly distort the accounting data, this should be borne in mind. In accounting, one can not limit oneself to surveying only the plowing areas.
Squirrel. Under the conditions of the fishery, when the hunter travels on the same route for 2 days in a row, the data can be processed according to the following simplified procedure (Smirnov, 1961): N = A / A – B (where N is the number of proteins, A – hunter extraction on the first day, B – extraction on the second day).
The account of a protein is often complicated because of its great mobility. Under conditions of observed migration, the average daily production of a hunter becomes an important reference point for determining the number, that is, a tendency to increase or decrease in numbers under different conditions, based on the average annual level.
Preferred are counts in the floodplain, cedar-broad-leaved forests (the Far East), along swamped swamps and larvae with lakes. The higher population is in the foothills. According to a very approximate scheme, the flood plain in the lower reaches of large tributaries refers to the first zone of population density of the species; inflows of the second and third orders belong to the second density zone. In the middle flow, first-order tributaries go to the second density zone, and second and third orders to the third density zone of the population. The upper reaches of rivers with all tributaries belong to the third density zone of the population.
In snow winters, when there are few mice, the columns can concentrate on empty or unfrozen keys. Without prior capture, accounting is difficult. With the onset of large frosts (December – January), accounting gives large gaps, since the speakers may not leave the shelter for a long time. Its activity sharply increases at the end of February – March.
Accounting for ermine
Accounting is preferable with the fall of the first snow, and only in floodplains of rivers and streams. On a large part of the range, the ermine leads a rather secretive way of life, with little exposure on the surface.
The account in fishing conditions is better to carry out before freeze-up, as arising hollows repeatedly increase errors of the account. It is necessary to carefully examine (until mid-November, until the broods settled) crevices, bank-slopes, sources of bays. In the habitats of the brood, trails, lazes, etc. are visible. Outside the individual habitat area of the brood there are only traces of adult single individuals (traces of pups are less frequent).
In March, the activity of the mink increases, the animal leaves more often from the hollow. The mink is mobile, the length of the daily course reaches 10-15 km.
The daily course and the individual habitat vary greatly, depending not only on the forage resources and the protective properties of the land. In places where there are almost no traces of otter presence, since it appears at a given place periodically, the habitat of the beast can exceed the water area of 50-60 km (length).
Suslik and marmots are taken into account on residential burrows on trial plots in May – early June. The size of the site for the registration of ground squirrels is not more than 20 hectares. Count inhabited burrows, visually or by catch determine the number of animals inhabiting the site of the site.
The chipmunk is taken into account on the routes in early May (sometimes with mank). The minimum number of registered animals per day, from which you can plan production – 40-50 individuals.
A qualitative estimate of abundance is possible only taking into account the type of reservoir, its hydrological regime, and the food base. On the floodplains, the muskrat rarely makes huts, but each family has 4-5 stern burrows at a habitat (in similar conditions) from 30-40 to 200 m. The spring counting (end of May – beginning of June) is carried out during the period when all muskrat movements end, the first litter appears, the number of occupied burrows roughly corresponds to the number of married couples. The spring population plus an average annual growth (the natural withdrawal of young animals is excluded) make it possible to speak in the first approximation of the plan of blanks.
The beaver during the summer is fairly widely moved, traces of its activity can be met far from the main habitat, making it difficult to count. The size of a weak, medium and strong family can be significantly different. Survey of shores when accounting (late autumn, before freezing, when beavers are already concentrated near settlements) increases the effectiveness of these works.
Accounting for foxes
In the practice of accounting operations for on-farm hunting, the size of the registration areas for a fox is not less than 1.5 thousand hectares. Lay off areas in reference to river floodplains, agricultural lands, etc., with differentiation into zones of different density of species (known maximum 10-12 individuals per 1000 hectares).
Accounting on the sites is possible if the population of the species is relatively large. Mapping of colonies and relative accounting of inhabited holes on routes are carried out. Sufficiently long-term accounting (up to 10 days) on the site up to 1000 hectares is advisable. Good results are obtained by the use of badger dogs. In places of rocky species, the density of the species can reach 40 or more animals per 1000 hectares. It should be borne in mind that in the summer the animals are dispersed into a fairly large (for the badger) distance (2-5 km) from the permanent settlement. Each adult beast can have 2-3 time holes.
Dogging of a raccoon dog
A general idea of the abundance of the species can give an examination of typical habitats: shores of lakes, bogs, bays, a channel with muddy and sandy shores. It is effective to take into account the loss of early snow on the sites (with integrated accounting).
Accounting for red deer
Take into account the roar (September – October); the route should cover various types of land, from the lower course of the river to the upper reaches. The listening points are laid by at least 3 listening radius from each other, with an average population density of the species, one point is sufficient for 8-12 thousand hectares. When listening to determine the approximate rush, which the beast can hear, the location is marked on the map-diagram, then it is outlined. The number of bulls in the structure of the population makes it possible to determine the total number of the species.
Accounting roe deer
In the summer period, it is possible to survey solonetzes, the edges of the sea, the keys, where on the scythes, muddy shores the traces are clearly visible, and the individual site of the roe deer is limited to several dozen hectares. In a number of places in the taiga zone, visual observation is possible (June-July) before sunset (males) from 18-19 h and with the first onset of dusk (females), when roe deer emerge into windswept open spaces, escaping from the nest. A frightened male almost always gives a voice.
In winter, with a snow fall of 25-35 cm, a significant part of the population wanders. The migrating roe deer is cross-tracked along the identified routes (most often the floodplain of the river, the march, etc.) “along the glades, old roads, winter roads, with the registration of the traces found on the scheme. When transitions roe deer go by chain. Their stays are distinguished by the ejection of snow almost to the ground.
The musk deer. Accounting for complex sites. Low population density – 2-4 individuals per 1000 hectares, average – 10-12, high – up to 40 animals per 1000 hectares. The individual habitat of musk deer is from 0.4 to 50 hectares, the daily trace can not exceed 0.5 km; special attention to the route should be given to rocky outcrops of relief, steep slopes with rocks.
In the summer-autumn period, an approximate estimate of the number is possible when examining the trails and “latrines”: 15-20 “latrines” per 1 km of the route can approximately correspond to the population density of up to 35-40 cabarogs per 1000 ha. Experienced hunters believe that males in the snow “chirk” hoofs, leaving a very characteristic thin strips. On fresh lezhkah males sometimes smell of musk.
Taking into account the deer of the wild northern
In the forest zone, land-based area and route surveys are extremely rare. The area of suitable habitats within the range is many times larger than the area occupied by reindeer for the period of recording on snow, therefore the registration area should be at least 15-20 thousand hectares. When moving, the herd goes in a chain; the number can be determined from the places of the divergence of animals for feeding.
Accounting in fishing areas is difficult, because the herds are constantly moving depending on the food situation, often over long distances. The registration area should be quite large (more than 15 thousand hectares), observations on the location and number of wild boars are mapped on a map-scheme with subsequent digital counting.
In deep snow the boar concentrates on the horsetails; in the spruce-fir taiga is kept on sedge, in the floodplain of small keys. Seasonal movements of the beast must be well known to the hunter: they are used in accounting work.
Accounting for waterfowl
Waterfowl in procurement does not matter, but the hunter must give an overall estimate of the number. Places and terms of mass migration of waterfowl are established by observation. A visual estimate of the number is carried out at daylight hours with a visual coverage of up to 1 km. Species are determined according to the scheme: geese, pintail, mallard, diving, teals, crumbs. The average number of birds in flocks is determined on the go, if possible – daily.
Accounting for the nests in the reservoirs conducted from July 1 to August. The best lands are water reservoirs that are heavily overgrown with a variety of water and near-water vegetation. Medium-quality grounds – water bodies, slightly overgrown or overgrown with sedges, reed grass, reeds. The worst land is aquatic vegetation, on the shores of the plant are represented mainly sedges.
Lay the site (up to 10% of the site of the reservoir), determine the average number of broods per 100 hectares and the average number of ducks in broods. Simultaneously with the boat visually count the males and single females. When processing the received data, a correction for the weak accuracy of the recording is introduced. In average water 80-85% of broods are taken into account in small water, in large – 40-45%.