These chickens can be safely attributed to in part to exotic and mythical birds, primarily due to their rarity and unique color. Ayam Cemani have not only a coal-black plumage. Eyes, comb, feet, skin and even the blood with meat differ surprisingly dark undertones.
On the body of this bird You will not see very small white spot. Not so surprising fact that the lucky few who happened to breed a breed Zemani attributed to her mythical properties.
A little history – the origin
Its origin black chickens required the Republic of Indonesia. And, in fact, their name is pretty simple: if you translate it literally, the “Ayam” means chicken, while Zemani – village located on the island of Java.
Clearly identify the ancestors of the breed is problematic, but scientists and breeders are often inclined to believe that this strange bird descended from the wild bankivskih chickens. Well, its resin coloration it is bound fibroelastosis is a special process calling the dominance of black pigment.
Familiarity with Ayam Cemani happened in the distant 1920. But only in 1998-1999 they were first bred in Europe to Dutch Sterownika. And of course, such an unusual breed almost immediately attracted the attention and impressed foreign breeders.
Description of the appearance and characteristics
As already mentioned, a distinctive feature of the hens and cocks – only black color. Which needs to be monitored very carefully by the breeder: one bright feather would be considered a marriage in the future breeding of this bird will not accept it. But at the same time, this simply “color” the selection of uniform standards for the appearance of the breed is not provided.
Although she, like all others, has a number of distinctive features:
- Ayam Cemani not very large in size: medium long neck and small head is decorated with small trapezoidal body.
- Breasts of birds though and rounded, but not outstanding.
- Tight to the body wings.
- But paws rather long, topped by four fingers.
- Smooth face and earlobes, rounded “earrings” black or close to it.
- Short beak with a slight thickening.
Cocks slightly larger than his companions, although rarely weigh more than 1.8−2 kg. From representatives of other breeds, in addition to color, they are distinguished by a big beautiful comb the correct form: cloves and cut it clear and pronounced. The tail is large and lush, almost always complemented with long braids covering short feathers.
Chickens are rarely heavier than four pounds. Good parameters of egg production they are not particularly Shine, starting to rush from the age of 5-7 months, the first year they are able to bring only about 100 eggs. Many breeders say that since their number is fairly quickly dropping.
Eggs Ayam Cemani with some appearance or taste no different from most other. The shell they have a pretty solid, from light to dark shades of brown. And the size, also, average about 50 grams. But at the same time individuals have a very high survival rate exceeding 90%.
What, then, to appreciate this breed, but her color and appearance? Despite its small size, Ayam Cemani famous for its high quality meat. Only then breeders need to remember that by the third year of life of poultry meat of its “benefits” are also falling rapidly, as her egg production.
The pros and cons of chickens Ayam Cemani
Alas, the merits of acquiring this breed is pretty small: good meat, extremely pleasing to the eye and unusual color.
But the downsides and difficulties of their breeding it is possible to enumerate the whole list:
- The main thing – to afford such a home bird will be able not everyone is a birder. Like any other rare or exotic animal, chickens Ayam Cemani are obscenely expensive. For one hatching egg or chicken can request up to $ 2,500.
- Despite the cost of egg production breeds poor – chickens for the year will not bring more than 100 eggs.
- Hen of chickens Ayam Cemani is also not so good, so breeding them almost always have to resort to artificial full-term eggs in the incubator.
- Originally these birds from hot Indonesia, which means that the creation of the conditions necessary for their maintenance, may require significant effort and expense. The house will have warmed, and in winter, perhaps even further otoplasty. Besides Zemani fearful and great flying, so the place is for walking, most likely, too it will be necessary to equip additionally.
- Fearfulness of hens generates their distrust of people.
- In the market to find the breed of ayam is quite difficult and not always possible – in Russia very few people interested in breeding so expensive and difficult to care for chickens in a small impact.
Features care and maintenance
If You still have the courage to become one of the few owners of chicken breed Ayam Cemani, first of all, you need to intelligently approach the development of their place of detention. The coop should be warm enough – the black birds do not tolerate the cold and are sensitive to drafts. The ideal option would be a wooden shed, with insulated floors and litter, not less than five centimeters. Thus, as a last it is best to use straw and peat in roughly equal proportions – they hold heat well.
One bedding with thick wooden planks will not be enough, it is a good idea to insulate the outside walls and ceiling. The most easy to use mineral wool, which can be easily repaired even small holes. But in the absence of his suit and the usual Styrofoam.
With the onset of winter the Windows of the coop are insulated, and cold in this time of the year noticeable, that first frost – it’s time to think about the device heating for the birds.
In addition, you need to be sure to take care of the place for walking: Ayam Cemani are very active and love to walk. And yet, despite popular opinion, they are great flyers. For this reason, only one fence do not work, selected the lawn will have to protect if not the roof, then at least a canopy.
Being on the street, chickens eat grass and bugs, but it is hardly able to provide Zemani nutrition. Fortunately, in contrast to keeping, feeding birds, this breed does not require something special: a conventional mixed feed, but always with vitamin supplements.
Prefer the natural forage breeders is to dilute grains and legumes, fresh herbs, bran, vegetables and yeast. In the winter this ration is recommended to add pine flour and silage. It is useful to improve digestion are: eggshell, chalk, sand or crushed seashells.
Breeding Ayam Cemani
As with any other breed, pure breeding, the breed must be kept apart from the other chickens. Five hens to one rooster ratio is optimal for obtaining eggs and breeding.
The percentage of oplodotvorennogo as tall as and survival, especially in good conditions. But there is one caveat to keep in mind: the hen of Zemani bad. So for hatching chickens, most likely, have to resort to artificial incubation.
Just born Chicks are virtually indistinguishable from any other except its black in color.
The hoax of the breed
Unique in its kind, the color just could not remain without attention of superstitious people. Particularly hard Ayam Cemani is revered among Asian Nations. The black bird they have connected with many rituals and signs.
Even to this day, superstitious people believe that crowing rooster Zemani brings good luck, happiness and prosperity to its owner. And eating dark meat is not only healthy, but able to relieve the pangs of conscience. Not to mention the fact that most of the rites with the sacrifice involved that is black cock.