To many novice growers the acute problem of incubating eggs in the home. They don’t have enough experience, so I commit a lot of mistakes. For this reason, hatchability of eggs are very low.
To get good results, each grower must not only know about the conditions of withdrawal of the Chicks, but also to respect the incubation of chicken eggs, which change from period to period.
This article will tell you how to store breeding material for incubation, what conditions should be created in the incubator and how many days there are chickens at home.
The selection of the material for incubation in the home
Properly the grower will select the breeding material on the successful incubation of chicken eggs. Therefore, this point should be given special attention.
The selection of chicken eggs for incubator should consider the following options:
- The quality of the chickens who provided the eggs. Breeding material need to take in birds, characterized by good health and productivity. These characteristics are almost always inherited.
- It is impossible to select for incubation of eggs weighing less than 52 is considered to be Optimal breeding material weighing from 56 to 63, it should Not be taken too large eggs. The fact is that every extra gram of weight increases during maturation of the chicken for 40 minutes. That is, if one incubator load of balls of different sizes with a weight range from 53 to 70g, then it is very likely that due to different periods of maturation the majority of Chicks will die, never born.
- Selecting eggs for incubator, you must consider the age of the bird that laid them. The safest age – from 1.5 to 2 years.
- You should not lay in the incubator and the eggs come from hens whose egg production increase were given a variety of drugs. It is better to take eggs from birds fed on natural feed.
- The shape of the egg should be correct, with distinct sharp and blunt ends. Between the last should not be a clear transition. The shell must be smooth, without pits and growths.
And now a little about why the incubator should not be laying large eggs:
- This breeding material is too thin shell.
- The larger the egg, the lower the chances of a successful breeding of the bird.
- When loading the incubator with large eggs, between them there is little free space. This leads to disruption of ventilation, which also negatively affects vyvodyaschy.
Before collecting eggs from nests should be carefully wash hands. Take them in your hands should be fingers of the opposite ends.
To select the best breeding material, carried up to 18 hours. It is believed that all the eggs demolished after this time, worse output.
You should also monitor the cleanliness of the shell. Dirt can interfere with the access of air into breeding material or even corrode the shell.
Novice growers the task of selection of eggs for incubation can greatly facilitate the special table of the incubation material. It can be found in the Internet.
Final inspection of breeding material before loading in the incubator
Visual inspection in the selection of the incubation to incubation is not enough to be sure of its quality. Breeding material after collection is a must-see on candling. Is a device that can be easily made with your own hands. To do this, take an ordinary cardboard box. In its cap to cut a hole of such size that it can be placed incubation material, but it should not fail. Inside the box you need to put a regular incandescent bulb 60 watts. To use the device for inspection of breeding material better in the dark.
When you use this device you need to pay attention to the following points:
- The presence of latent defects or microcracks of the shell. If they are, then breeding material is rejected.
- The air chamber needs to be on the blunt end of the material. Its thickness should not exceed 4 mm. If more, it means that the egg is not fresh and is not suitable for incubation.
- The yolk should be exactly in the center. The grower needs a few times to turn the egg to make sure yolk has little mobility. Breeding material with highly movable yolk discarded.
- On the surface and inside the breeding material should be no dark spots and patches.
Storage and disinfection of breeding material
Still among the poultry farmers, there is no consensus on how to keep breeding material.
Some experts say that he had a few days of storage is in disrepair, others claim that in properly selected temperature, they can be easily stored about a week and a half.
Based on this information we can conclude that the optimum can be considered a shelf life of 5-6 days. Then, the percentage of vyvodyaschy Chicks will be significantly reduced.
In the case where the breeding material will be stored for more than 3 days, then it can be kept at a temperature under 18 ° C. With more long-term storage the temperature should be lowered to 12 ° C.
Humidity in both cases should not exceed 80%.
If it is below, the eggs will begin to lose weight.
- With humidity in the 80% incubation material will become easier by 0.8%.
- At a humidity of 60%, the loss will be 2.5%.
During long-term storage of breeding material, it is necessary to turn not rezé once a day.
All eggs selected for incubation should be stored in a well ventilated area. The fact that the shell is able to absorb various minerals from the air. Therefore, the cleaner it is, the better.
And again, help in proper storage of the material to a novice grower will have a table depending on vyvodyaschy chickens from incubation storage periods of the material. It also can be found on the Internet.
Incubation of chicken eggs at home is unlikely to be successful if put in the incubator of dirty breeding material. This means that it needs to be disinfected. Purity is the main condition of successful hatching.
For disinfection it is best to use a weak solution of potassium permanganate or polutoratonny solution of hydrogen peroxide.
Don’t need to bathe breeding material in these solutions. They need to moisten the soft cloth and wipe the shell.
Some experienced poultry farmers to clean the shell use bleach. One must have the concentration of 25%. Approximately 20 g of this powder was added to 1 liter of water, then arrange each egg a bath in this solution with a duration of 3-4 minutes.
This procedure should be conducted no sooner than 2 hours before bookmarks breeding stock in the hatchery.
Selection and training of incubator
Experienced growers recommend to beginners is not to try to make an incubator yourself, and buy in a specialty store.
It should be remembered that these devices vary in price and functionality. So before you make the bookmark, you need to carefully read the instructions to the device and carry out some trial runs.
When choosing the incubator should consider the following options:
- The capacity of the device.
- The automatic turning unit.
- The presence or absence of automatic control of temperature and humidity.
- Case material.
- The quality and level of insulation.
- The ability of the incubator to operate from backup power.
Before laying breeding material all the elements of incubator should be thoroughly washed and disinfected.
The device is to be installed in a room, devoid of drafts, but well ventilated. Do not put it near Windows and doors.
Incubator it is necessary to put on a solid and stable base. Using the thumb wheels on the legs need to align it on the level.
After the first run, the device should work in test mode at least one day. Only after that it can be used for incubating chicken eggs. Immediately before being placed inside the device need to remember to set the necessary parameters of the microclimate.
Before laying incubation material should be some time to take in the room with the air temperature 19-22 ° C.
Before you begin incubation of the eggs would be superfluous to familiarize with the temperature table. It shows the temperature settings of the incubator for each incubation period of the eggs. Find a table on the Internet.
The periods of the output of Chicks
The first thing the grower needs to know exactly what day we should expect the appearance of chickens. After they hatch they immediately should be moved to the brooder.
The average time of incubation of eggs does not exceed 22 days from the time of insertion. If the temperature in the incubator is below the norm by 1-2 degrees, the timing of hatching will increase for a few days. What temperature should be in the incubator for each of the periods will be discussed below.
If chickens not appeared on 25th day, then continue to wait for their appearance is meaningless.
Before you place the eggs in the incubator on their shell with the opposite sides need to make marker notes in the form of noughts and crosses. These marks will help determine which way to turn the trays.
Incubating eggs at home can be divided into 4 major periods:
- Incubation of eggs in the first 6 days. During this period, the humidity inside the unit should not exceed 70 or fall below 60%. The temperature in the incubator for chicken eggs should be set at 38 °C. Breeding material need to flip every 3-4 hours. To get rid of this routine work can instrument with automatic coup on a timer. On the 4th day the temperature should be set to 37.5°C, humidity reduced to 55%.
- The incubation period of eggs lasts from 7 to 11 days. In this period, the humidity inside the incubator is reduced to 40% and the temperature remains at the level of 37.5°C.
- The third period of the incubation of eggs at home lasts from 12 to 20 days. The temperature regime was set at the level of 37.3°C, but the humidity, by contrast, rises to 80%. About 15 day you can check the eggs by candling. To quickly raise the humidity to the desired level, you can moisten the shell of breeding material with water. 18 days should bring the fan to the maximum level. In addition, 2 times a day the incubator need to be aired. To do this, open the flaps for 10 minutes.
- The incubation period of the eggs is characterized by the PIP and the emergence of Chicks. You should not take the first pop the chicken. They must have time to dry. For this reason Chicks are taken out of the incubator all at once.
If the fancier does not make mistakes, then all the Chicks will hatch within one day. The incubation of eggs is completed.
The most common mistakes in incubation of eggs
As you can see, the incubation of the eggs is a difficult process. It is not surprising that novice breeders make a lot of mistakes. However, sometimes they do and experienced poultry farmers.
The most common are the following errors egg incubation:
- The grower does not know the full functionality of the device.
- Beginner wrong keeps breeding material.
- The incubation material incorrectly put into the incubator.
- At each period of breeding chickens are not complied with temperature and humidity regimes.
- Improper installation of the incubator.
- Newbie forgets to flip the eggs.
For successful incubation of eggs at home enough to not make the above mistakes.