Every grower and gardener wants to get big yields. And plants for this you need sufficient amount of nutrients. We often have to deal with poor, infertile land. Then question fertilizer in the soil becomes especially important. Without feeding it is impossible to imagine any modern garden.
All fertilizers are divided into two groups:
The opinions of growers on the advantages and disadvantages of each type is ambiguous.
Some believe that organic is especially strong increases productivity. Others believe that plants are better able to absorb dissolved minerals trapped in the soil from a mixture of purchase. Supporters of organic farming believe that nutrients enter the plant as a result of complex chemical reactions with substances associated with particles of humus. It follows that the amount of nutrients in the soil increases significantly after decomposition of organic mattertaking place with the participation of microorganisms. The adherents of the chemical method of fertilizer application are sure that the plants much more efficiently absorb dissolved mineral substances.
To get the correct answer, you need to approach the issue from a scientific point of view.
How do plants absorb fertilizers?
It is first necessary to determine the mechanism of uptake by plants of nutrients.
Science bioorganika says that commands to the plant absorption of nutrients the sun gives, that is the amount of sunlight. But this is true only when there is an overabundance of nutrients in the soil.
Making ready mineral fertilizers mOzhet easy it is to create this surplus. Then the plant begins active growth. It can not independently regulate the flow of nutrients. Such plants become watery. The result is increased vulnerability to diseases and pests.
The number of fruits may increase, but be kept like this the harvest will be bad. And the excess of certain substances in the fruit is often harmful to human health.
Organic matter is slower. There must be a decomposition into simple elements. It is proved that in the process of such decomposition improves the structure of soil. An important advantage of organic fertilizers is the presence of beneficial microorganisms. Microflora revitalizes the soil.
The lack of organic matter is the difficulty of determining its nutritional value for plants. The quality of organic fertilizers is highly dependent on animal species, their diet, the conditions of storage of waste products.
Chemical fertilizers are easier to apply. Always easy to calculate the dosage of the drug. For specific types of plants there are complex mineral Supplement, specifically designed to meet their needs. However, even the best chemical compounds will not make the soil fertile. Often when applied is the acidification of the soil. We have further carried out liming. An overabundance of chemicals to suppress the activity of the microflora, prevents the spread of earthworms.
Numerous studies show that the maximum yields of good quality can only be achieved by joint application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Waste products of poultry and livestock have long been used in agriculture. Can’t do without them, the gardeners and now.
Most common are the following types of organics:
- horse manure;
- pig manure;
- bird droppings.
The choice of the type of manure rarely depends on preferences. Use the one that’s available in a particular area. Bird droppings deserves special attention. Though it the item’s nutrients are close to the manure, the concentration of all elements in the litter are much higher. This allows to achieve high yields while using less fertilizer. The consequence is a very important advantage — saving money.
Leading positions in the poultry industry on the territory of our country is chickens. Therefore, chicken manure is the most commonly used.
Scientists believe that as fertilizer chicken manure superior manure, and the high release rate of nutrients allows it to compete with mineral fertilizers.
Chemistry gives the following data on the chemical composition of chicken manure:
- water — 56%;
- nitrogen and 1.6%;
- phosphoric anhydride and 1.5%;
- the potassium oxide — 0,8%;
- calcium oxide — 2,4%;
- magnesium oxide — 0,7%;
- sulfuric anhydride of 0.4%.
In the composition of the chicken manure there are still a number of elements:
Most of the nutrients in the litter are water-soluble form.
Studies show that chicken litter has the lowest humidity. Duck and goose shit there is over 70% water, and the nutrient content is significantly lower.
To use chicken manure as fertilizer for all soil types.
Feeding chicken manure offers the following advantages:
- The increase in yield of 20-40%.
- Acceleration of ripening for 10-15 days.
- Reduced likelihood of mold formation on the soil surface.
- Help plants in the fight against fungal diseases and bacterial infections.
Pure manure can only be obtained at the poultry farm. If the source of fertilizer is the private sector, the litter is cleaned out of the coop with straw or sawdust.
Therefore, there is a division into two varieties:
This type of fertilizing is prepared in the cellular content of laying hens. Is a sticky mass with a characteristic odor. Has a high content of nutrients.
Liquid kind are prone to rapid loss of nitrogen. To reduce losses to a minimum, you need to add peat. If the peat is no allowed to use the soil.
This species tolerates storage. It is a granular substance, low humidity. Litter effectively preserves nutrients, so their losses are considerably reduced. The best material is considered litter the dry ground peat, which added chopped straw. Used instead of straw and sawdust of deciduous trees.
Ways to use chicken manure
Now it’s time to answer the main question: how to use chicken droppings as fertilizer? The answer will depend on what kind of litter is. Consider the basic options.
Chicken manure in its pure form to be used for immediate feeding is impossible. It is usually buried in the ground in autumn. One hundred is recommended to apply 20-40 kg of liquid variety. Bedding is necessary in 1,5−2 times more. Overdose is practically impossible, because at the time of planting will be a complete decomposition.
First clean the area from weeds. Fertilizer was spread evenly over the beds. Dug up the earth with a turnover of formation to incorporation.
The spring chicken droppings to decompose and turn into wonderful nutrient medium for plants.
It is important to consider the need of plants in pre-fertilized soil. For example, potatoes and cabbage need large amounts of nutrients. And the strawberries are fertilized in this way the garden will be rooting that will lead to a reduction of the crop.
By using thermal drying in special drying apparatus at a temperature of 600-800 degrees of liquid manure getting dry. This die pests and microorganisms, weed seeds are destroyed.
If milled dry peat litter to add powder, you get an organic fertilizer “Poudre”. It is believed that the use of pudrete eliminates the need for additional mineral fertilizers.
Poudret has a number of significant advantages:
- ease of use;
- high concentrations of nutrients;
- the absence of harmful and dangerous contaminants;
- ease of storage and transportation;
- an unlimited shelf life.
From pudrete prepare water infusion. How to breed chicken droppings turned into poudret will be discussed in the appropriate section.
The steadily growing popularity of chicken manure as fertilizer. For the convenience of growers began to produce purified and specially processed dry manure in granules. It has all the advantages of dry dung powder.
However, the pellets are only one form of delivery of dry chicken manure. Therefore, there is no difference in the properties of granules and powder.
Most often, to feed plants using the present aqueous solution of chicken manure. This method of application eliminates the danger of burning the root system. Liquid fertilizer easily absorbed into the soil, providing a quick supply of nutrients to the plants.
How to make fertilizer from chicken manure, to keep the correct concentration, should know every grower.
The composition of the solution depends on the condition of the original fertilizer:
- One kilogram of dung in its pure form diluted in 20 liters of water. The resulting solution needs to stand in the shade for two to three days. Daily it needs to be stirred. The finished solution can be filtered before use.
- For dilution of one kilogram of dry dung is required 30 gallons of water. The composition is stirred and left for a three-day fermentation. Before watering the infusion must still be diluted with water. You will need five litres of water for each liter of infusion.
The consumption is two litres per one square meter. If the metering lead in the number of plants for each Bush you need 0.5 liters.
You can make a concentrated solution. It is convenient to store during the season, but use as needed. This manure is mixed with water in equal parts, insist three days, strain and store in a dark place. As containers you can use plastic bottles. Before using one liter of this concentrate is diluted in ten liters of water.
Droppings in the compost
If chicken manure is available in large quantities, it can be used for the purpose of making compost. For this the layers are placed litter and dry vegetation. As a vegetable component it is possible to use fallen leaves, weeds, sawdust. The layers in the compost do not thicker than 20 cm the Total height of the compost should not exceed one meter, otherwise it will difficult the access of oxygen, without which they can die, beneficial microorganisms. The top must be a vegetative layer.
The resulting compost is aged from three to six months. Periodically watered and lightly stir with a pitchfork.
Compost usable in a single season. If you need longer storage, you need to fill it from the top layer of the earth. So it is possible to prevent loss of nitrogen.
What you can and cannot fertilize?
For many vegetables, fertilizing with dung is very useful, among them:
- potatoes and other root vegetables.
Plants that do not like this dressing, much smaller, but they also need to mention:
Improper cleaning chicken droppings can harm human health. The main risk factor is the release of methane and ammonia. Do not forget about the possible presence of worms.
Manipulations should be carried out in overalls:
- the protective suit;
After collecting the fertilizer need to be dried.
Store the droppings in the pit. At the bottom of the stack leaves, straw, sawdust. Place on top of the litter. It must be well compacted. The pit should not be deeper than one meter, to ensure enough oxygen. It is important to remember not to place the pit near wells and reservoirs. When choosing a place better to give preference to shaded hills.
A short time manure can be stored in wooden boxes. To save the properties it is necessary to periodically pour superphosphate.
Centuries chicken manure, along with manure was a good fertilizer for vegetable crops. He helped to obtain excellent yields without the use of industrial fertilizers. The chemical industry allowed us to further increase productivity. But it’s not possible to do without the most eco-friendly fertilizer given to us by nature.