In the beginning of this month may see the first snowdrops. If the winter was warm, you can find fresh oyster mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms usually grow on trees, the cap of this mushroom is one-sided or rounded, the plate run away on foot, as if the form to her. To distinguish from edible mushrooms oyster mushroom is easy — it has absolutely nekazisty to the touch hat. Also in April, in the Leningrad region quite often there are Govorushko and mushrooms — snowdrops – morels and lines.
A rather large mushroom. A hat with a diameter of 5-15 (30) cm, fleshy, solid, roundish, with a thin edge; form is earlike recomenaria or almost round. The young mushroom cap is convex, with wrapped edge, later flat or shirokoformatnaya with a wavy or lobed margin. The hat surface is smooth, glossy, often undulate. When growing in wet conditions the pileus is often covered with filamentous bloom. The color of the cap is changeable, varying from dark gray or brownish in young mushrooms to ash-gray with violet shade from Mature mushrooms, and over time vizueta to whitish, grayish or yellowish.
The stem is short (sometimes almost invisible), dense, solid, eccentric or lateral, cylindrical, tapering to the base, often curved, 2-5 cm long and 0.8—3 cm thick. The surface of legs are white, smooth; at the base brownish and slightly felted. Mushrooms from old stem becomes very hard.
Edible mushroom. In food use young mushrooms (up to 7-10 cm) after removal of rigid legs, because the older mushrooms become too hard.
Fruiting bodies are often small or of medium size (cap diameter about 3-6 cm).
Hat bright: whitish, greyish-brown, pale yellow; concave in the middle, to funnel-shaped; smooth, dry.
Leg thin (0.5—1 cm), cylindrical.
The gills are white or light-colored, decurrent on the stem.
Spore powder is white or creamy white.
In the family has both edible and poisonous species, including deadly poisonous. Most species are difficult, therefore, to collect Govorushko is recommended only for experienced mushroom pickers.
Morels grow in the spring in woods, parks, gardens. In large quantities they can be found on the third and sometimes the fourth year after a forest fire. Old fires can regularly grow each year, although in smaller quantities. It is believed, though not proven, that morels can form mycorrhiza with certain types of trees (especially ash).
Used in boiled and fried (after otwarci).
As for morels, despite the lack of reliable data concerning their toxicity (in contrast to the toxicity of raw morels are), pre cooking (boiling or drying) is recommended for these fungi, as in Russia, the mushroom is often confused lines with morels, these mushrooms collected in the same container (while gyromitrin bat) and sell on the market of lines under the guise of “morels”. In this regard, as gyromitra, Morel is also considered sanitary doctors of Russia as a “conditionally edible mushroom”.
Raw lines is deadly poisonous. It is widely believed that the lines can be eaten after cooking, but giromitrin is not destroyed completely even by prolonged boiling, therefore, in many countries the lines relate to the definitely poisonous mushrooms.
Fruit body stitch ordinary (Gyromitra esculenta) is similar to the brain or a walnut. Hat in numerous convolutions, hollow, irregularly rounded, folded and divided into many lobes, its surface is velvety in appearance, its color can vary from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown depending on the location and growing conditions. In diameter cap is usually 2-10 cm, its edges connected with the foot. Leg usually irregular in shape, short, wrinkled, furrowed, often buried in soil, the bottom has a small thickness, the inside is hollow and light, sometimes has a yellowish-pinkish hue, a length of 2-3 cm, the same diameter. Found in conifers, especially pine woods; clearings, fires, warmed by the sun.
Gyromitra ordinary has strong similarities with the giant gyromitra (Gyromitra gigas), which is a lighter color hats, large size (diameter up to 30 cm), argument structure and place of growth (tends to birch). Both species, like morels grow in the spring, from late April to late may — early June.
In the damp lines gyromitrin contain strong toxins having hemolytic action, as well as damaging the Central nervous system, liver and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, eating fried morels are neotvarennogo and broths of them can lead to serious poisoning, often fatal.
However, when used in stitching (and morels) food should be used with caution. First, even the number of gyromitrin that remain in the mushrooms after boiling or drying and do not cause the clinical picture of poisoning, can be carcinogenic. Secondly, some people (especially children) can have increased sensitivity to gyromitrin, so that even small amounts of this poison will be dangerous for them. The assumption on the existence of special strains in stitching with a high content of gyromitrin against which digestion is inefficient.