In may in Leningrad region there are Morel, gyromitra, suillus, oyster, puffball. Most mushrooms can be found under trees, and they grow on lawns and in the grass.
A rather large mushroom. A hat with a diameter of 5-15 (30) cm, fleshy, solid, roundish, with a thin edge; form is earlike recomenaria or almost round. The young mushroom cap is convex, with wrapped edge, later flat or shirokoformatnaya with a wavy or lobed margin. The hat surface is smooth, glossy, often undulate. When growing in wet conditions the pileus is often covered with filamentous bloom. The color of the cap is changeable, varying from dark gray or brownish in young mushrooms to ash-gray with violet shade from Mature mushrooms, and over time vizueta to whitish, grayish or yellowish.
The stem is short (sometimes almost invisible), dense, solid, eccentric or lateral, cylindrical, tapering to the base, often curved, 2-5 cm long and 0.8—3 cm thick. The surface of legs are white, smooth; at the base brownish and slightly felted. Mushrooms from old stem becomes very hard.
Edible mushroom. In food use young mushrooms (up to 7-10 cm) after removal of rigid legs, because the older mushrooms become too hard.
Morels grow in the spring in woods, parks, gardens. In large quantities they can be found on the third and sometimes the fourth year after a forest fire. Old fires can regularly grow each year, although in smaller quantities. It is believed, though not proven, that morels can form mycorrhiza with certain types of trees (especially ash).
Used in boiled and fried (after otwarci).
As for morels, despite the lack of reliable data concerning their toxicity (in contrast to the toxicity of raw morels are), pre cooking (boiling or drying) is recommended for these fungi, as in Russia, the mushroom is often confused lines with morels, these mushrooms collected in the same container (while gyromitrin bat) and sell on the market of lines under the guise of “morels”. In this regard, as gyromitra, Morel is also considered sanitary doctors of Russia as a “conditionally edible mushroom”.
Raw lines is deadly poisonous. It is widely believed that the lines can be eaten after cooking, but giromitrin is not destroyed completely even by prolonged boiling, therefore, in many countries the lines relate to the definitely poisonous mushrooms.
Fruit body stitch ordinary (Gyromitra esculenta) is similar to the brain or a walnut. Hat in numerous convolutions, hollow, irregularly rounded, folded and divided into many lobes, its surface is velvety in appearance, its color can vary from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown depending on the location and growing conditions. In diameter cap is usually 2-10 cm, its edges connected with the foot. Leg usually irregular in shape, short, wrinkled, furrowed, often buried in soil, the bottom has a small thickness, the inside is hollow and light, sometimes has a yellowish-pinkish hue, a length of 2-3 cm, the same diameter. Found in conifers, especially pine woods; clearings, fires, warmed by the sun.
Gyromitra ordinary has strong similarities with the giant gyromitra (Gyromitra gigas), which is a lighter color hats, large size (diameter up to 30 cm), argument structure and place of growth (tends to birch). Both species, like morels grow in the spring, from late April to late may — early June.
In the damp lines gyromitrin contain strong toxins having hemolytic action, as well as damaging the Central nervous system, liver and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, eating fried morels are neotvarennogo and broths of them can lead to serious poisoning, often fatal.
However, when used in stitching (and morels) food should be used with caution. First, even the number of gyromitrin that remain in the mushrooms after boiling or drying and do not cause the clinical picture of poisoning, can be carcinogenic. Secondly, some people (especially children) can have increased sensitivity to gyromitrin, so that even small amounts of this poison will be dangerous for them. The assumption on the existence of special strains in stitching with a high content of gyromitrin against which digestion is inefficient.
Suillus is a genus of fungi of the family of the tubular Baletowa (lat. Boletaceae). It got its name because of the oily, slippery to touch hats. The characteristics that distinguish most types of oil from other boletaceae, is sticky slimy, easily removable peel the cap and the ring, the remaining from private cover.
Hat from convex to flat in shape, smooth, usually sticky or slimy, with an easily removable skin. It is possible to have private cover.
The gimenofor easily separated from the cap; adnate, or downward on the stem, yellow or white.
Stem solid, smooth or granular, sometimes with a ring — the remnants of private cover.
The flesh is whitish or yellowish colour on the cut can change the color to blue or red.
Spore powder in various shades of yellow.
Fruit body closed structure, round, pear-shaped, often with a pronounced false leg, small or medium size. A sterile cloth about the legs tightly fused with the top part bearing the Gleba. Actirity covered with spinous outgrowths that age can fall off. After the spores Mature fruiting body opens a small hole at the top.