Calicivirus (calicivirus) cats is a viral disease caused by Feline Calicivirus (FCV). It’s a virus without a shell, consisting of a chain of RNA. It is distributed worldwide and has many strains. Affects primarily the respiratory system and the digestive and even the brain.
In advanced cases, with weakness of the body and immune system, with high probability calicivirus in cats can be fatal.
Depending on the severity of the action of the strain, immunity and body condition of the cat, presence of other diseases, age may exhibit certain symptoms in different combinations and degrees of severity. In adult cats the onset of the disease may be asymptomatic, kittens and older to start in an acute form. From the moment of infection before symptoms of the disease may take up to a week.
The disease is characterized by the following features:
- Ulcers on the tongue, palate, mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, nose, in other areas with thin and delicate skin. First, in the form of bubbles (like the “blisters”), and then the bubbles burst. Appears putrid breath.
- Discharge from the nose and eyes at first clean, then serous, purulent. Selection is abundant, to ignore them is difficult. Especially in kittens eyes just “swim” pus.
- The General apathy, weakness.
- Refusal of food, and partly from drinking.
- Sneezing, coughing.
- High temperature, fever.
- Isolated attacks of arthritis – loss of one of the joints, the appearance of a cat’s lameness, which resolves spontaneously without treatment in a few days.
- Heavy uneven breathing, shortness of breath.
Less frequently observed symptoms of kalitsiviroza cats from the gastrointestinal tract in the form of diarrhea, alternating with constipation. These signs arise, as a rule, in lesions with ulcers of the intestine.
With the defeat of kalitsiviroza brain, the cat appears aggression, recoordinate in motion.
Methods of diagnosis
For accurate diagnosis of calicivirus in cats, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Diagnosis calicivirus cats is on the basis of external signs (symptoms) and laboratory test results.
To identify the virus are two types of tests: PCR and antibody titre. For PCR analysis, it is sufficient to take a mouth swab from the animal, but it is possible to do analysis and by blood. To determine the titer of antibodies to the virus is taken a blood test.
At the same time can be carried out , biochemical and clinical blood and urine tests to establish the degree of infestation of the body of a cat, the immune response and to identify the deficiency of certain substances in the body, the degree of weakening.
When there is breathing problems and lameness can be carried out radiographic studies.
Hardest flows calicivirus in older cats and young kittens. The immune system have very low as well as cats with concomitant diseases. In such cases the lethal outcome is very likely to survive is extremely small.
Much easier to tolerate the disease vaccinated adult cats. Vaccination, including the intrusion, greatly facilitates the course of the disease and increases the chances of recovery.
Sources of infection
The virus lives in the environment from two weeks to a month. Calcivirus transmitted in cats through airborne droplets from direct contact with sick animals, and indirect. To get more chances of cats with free-range, but can be infected and Pets.
- Contagious saliva of a sick cat. If he sneezed, the saliva left on the grass or household items, it becomes a source of the virus. Sneezing directly on fellows, of course, is also infected.
- Contact, direct or indirect, with the feces or urine of a sick cat. Contact can be through contaminated grass, pans, General household items.
- Using household items an infected animal – bowls, litter, toys, carry.
- Through hands, clothes, shoes, human contact with sick animals. In this way, can even get infected kittens, animals without pasture.
- When pairing.
- From the sick cats and kittens. As in utero – in most cases, kittens in the womb to die – and with milk is born.
Once ill the cat becomes a lifelong carrier of the virus and spreads it in the environment becomes a source of danger to others without a history and unvaccinated cats.
Brought into the house, the animal may be a carrier of the virus or domestic cats can infect novice. So without a history and unvaccinated beginners do not bring home to the sick, and the unknown kitten should be kept in quarantine for two weeks before meeting with home. During the quarantine to see if symptoms or analyses to the beginner.
Ill cats must withdraw from cultivation as they are, as the media will spread the virus to their partners on knitting, and kittens.
The highest probability of infection and the complicated treatment in cats living close together in kennels and shelters.
Treatment of kalitsiviroza
In cases of severe complications as pneumonia and fever, require treatment in a hospital the veterinary clinic. The doctors in these cases, spend a extra aggressive therapy.
If the disease is stable, not complicated, not running, it is quite easy to treat kalitsiviroza at home.
Treatment, though in the home, should be integrated and comprehensive, symptoms.
Medications directly from calicivirosis in cats is not, therefore, apply the therapy directed on maintenance of an organism, increase resistance to virus, immune system, symptom relief and treatment of opportunistic infections.
- The use of antibiotics. Contrary to the erroneous, “dense” opinions that they need. Antibiotics do not cure the virus, but eliminate secondary bacterial infections that are actively damaging a weakened virus, the body. Drugs used broad-spectrum: the resorption, Synulox, Ceftriaxone, Baytril, Tylosin, Tetracycline. Drugs are used in dosages specified in the instructions within 7-10 days. In severe cases up to two weeks. It is best if the dosage and the drug will prompt the veterinarian in the examination, and then the owner will be well to give the animal. Drugs are produced in form of tablets and injections. What form to choose is decided by the doctor and the owner.
- Nose and eyes should be washed from the formation. A suitable saline solution. The nose digs, the eyes are washed with tampons. In addition, suitable infusions of chamomile and sage. In the nose you can dig up to 4 times a day naftizina drops to reduce outflows. In eyes with inflammation laid eye tetracycline eye ointment (1%).
- Ulcers in the mouth and on other mucous membranes are washed with antiseptic solutions. For example, such as Miramistin. Mouth can be fluff gel Metrogyl Denta. Chlorhexidine is better not to use, as with other drugs taste bitter. Cats are worse than the people tolerate the bitterness, so in addition to the active resistance from the pet, you can get the strongest salivation and even vomiting, which will wash away all the drug, not allowing him to act. And on top of that such torture for cat – the strongest stress, which aggravates the disease and creates fear of one kind caring owner.
- Enhanced immunity, anti-viral agents: Immunofan, Cycloferon (human), Fosprenil.
- Strengthening vitamins and vitamin supplements: Gamavit, Dualit. Vitamins can be added to food in powdered tablets.
- If necessary, you can specify antipyretic. Apply Lexicom, Ketofen 1%. Drugs are dosed according to the instructions. In any case can not give your cat human fever, because most of them are for cats – poisons.
- In the early stages of the disease practice introduction serum type of Vitafel and Immunother.
- If the cat is not eating and drinking, dehydration occurs expressed. In such instances, intravenous infusion. In the form of injections or IVS administered subcutaneously saline, ringer solution, ringer-Locke, glucose. Both separately and in combination. Physically it’s completely doable at home, the veterinarian may show the owner how it’s done. Needles are inserted into drawn up a fold of skin on withers cat. Drip fluids down by drops, not quick. So with the injections. Injections in these cases is problematic, are mainly used for kittens.
- Special attention should be paid to nutrition.
Because the cat in the period of the disease is apathy and it affected mouth ulcers, food for her is an ordeal. During this period the food should be as attractive in smell and taste for cats, should be soft or even semi-liquid.
Cats, accustomed to prepared food, it should translate into pies, soft canned food and best diet lines. You need to choose the food for debilitated animals with increased nutritional value and caloric content. Veterinary feeds of different manufacturers (Royal Canin, Farmina, Purina, hills) have different markings, but the vet or consultant in the pet store will tell you what you need.
If the cat is unable to eat himself, forced-feeding. Appetite can be improved, including the application of the IVS. For forced feeding of soft food diluted put it into a syringe without a needle and you set the cat in the mouth in small portions, so it does not choke. The syringe need to start on the cheek, that is, to insert the nozzle between the teeth at the base of the jaw.
During treatment and not only need to monitor the health condition of the house.
The premises are ventilated, the air you need to humidify. The dishes, pans and bedding should be regularly cleaned and disinfected. Trays and household items can be carefully washed with a chlorine-containing means to the smell remained. Bowls for food and water to thoroughly wash and rinse with boiling water.
It is impossible to create the conditions for recirculation of the virus in the room. He should be cast out.
Best of all, of course, to prevent infection and disease than heroically, and not always successfully to fight them.
And health Pets prevention is needed:
- First and foremost – vaccination. To vaccinate kittens comprehensive vaccinations, including protivokashlevye, start with 6-8 weeks of life. Re-vaccination of kittens is 2-4 weeks, and then once a year. To vaccinate only healthy cats and kittens. Advance for 10-14 days spend a conclusion of worms and fleas. These parasites overwhelm and weaken the body, bring infection. Therefore, the struggle with them is also important.
- To prevent possible dense residence cats.
- To comply with the measures of sanitation and hygiene. Spaces should always be ventilated trays regularly, at least once a day, to get out. Household items need to regularly wash, clean, ventilate.
- To maintain the quarantine for beginners and young kittens. Beginners two weeks quarantined, kittens prior to vaccination.
- Healthy quality food, containing vitamins and minerals are key to good health and high immunity: quality of finished feed or properly chosen and balanced natural food. Money not invested in the food for the cats now will turn into many times higher than the expenditure on treatment later.
- If the house died of kalitsiviroza pet, at least a month you can’t bring home a new. And the everyday items of a bygone cat is better replaced with new or thoroughly and for a long time disinfected old.