An allergic reaction is an immune response to the action of a certain substance that is not dangerous for a particular person.
Mechanisms of action of Allergy work by protecting the body from harmful factors, but such confrontation is not a natural reaction, and pathology of one of the systems of the human body.
Information about allergens
Allergen is the substance which, in contact with the organism at the initial stage causes a reaction of the organism against itself, and the next contact is perceived by the immune system as a foreign substanceto be destroyed. The work of the body to get rid of a foreign body engages in a process of its own tissues, thus affecting them more than the injurious agent.
The main contact substances appealing are allergic to cats are:
- urine, feces;
- skin Horny scales.
Wool is interwoven of many fibers, whose growth is necessary to the keratin substance, differing in the breeds of animals. In contrast to the skin keratin, the hair has less moisture and more aerodynamic cavities within. That is why some cat owners allergic reaction occurs only on long-haired or short-haired breed or a specific animal species.
Saliva is secreted from glands connected to oral cavity, its composition varies from time of day and food intake. Compared with human, animal saliva contains more enzymes, which help to cope with raw food or contaminated food. For man the animal’s saliva, from the point of view of the allergen, poses a serious danger, as the enzymes (immunoglobulin and lysozyme) exceed the contents compared to a man hundreds of times and are more active. They are related to proteins, therefore, trigger an immune response.
Skin belongs to the same organs as the liver, kidneys and others. In cats the skin changes constantly, with the older layers in the form of fine flakes, flakes up into the air and deposited on furniture, carpets and bed. As keratin cat’s skin has a completely different structure from human skin, the interaction causes an allergic response of the organism to a foreign substance.
Cat urine has a high pH, in addition, it contains a kind of attractive substances that are the hallmark of a cat or cats. Attractive analogs of such proteins in humans is not, therefore, the urine of cats provoke allergies, even in those who do not have to it a big predisposition. Particles of urine spread through the animal’s coat and along with dead skin flakes to fall into the human respiratory tract.
Feces is dangerous because it is composed of mucous components comprising immunoglobulins and lymphocytes. These substances are permanently retained in areas where the animal relieves itself, dry, airborne and fall into the respiratory system of a person.
How does Allergy to cats?
Allergic reactions of the body are considered pathological , and for their appearance need to have of a person have been violated the protection of natural barrier mechanisms. Such degenerative changes have been shown to have contact allergen in the blood in malaysiana. But the body takes protection through the action of the gastric juice, saliva, bile, tears, mucus, skin resistance.
Protective function provided by the microflora in the gut, the gastrointestinal enzymes and the pancreas, stops the movement of the allergen flicker of the epithelium in the respiratory organs.
The development of allergies in cats involves three stages:
- the period of reaction of the immune system.
- period biochemical response;
- the period of onset of clinical manifestations.
The period of immune responses
Before you are allergic to cats pathogen is in contact with human blood. Immune and macrophage cells protect the body by absorbing the allergic substance, recognizing in him a foreign agent. After the destruction of the allergen cage, destroying it will provide for the surface antigens, and circulating them in the blood, lymphocytes encountering and relaying information. Lymphocytes process the information and deliver them to lymph nodes where there are concentrations of backing protective cells in case of dangerous interactions with harmful substances.
The immune system’s response to the information received ceases the production of antibodies and lymphocytes in increased number, designed for the destruction of the damaging agent in the case of its repeated interaction with the body and penetration. Process is the name of a sensibilization of an organism, and if at the initial stage does not manifest itself, the means to actively counter the embattled.
Period biochemical response
This stage begins during the second contact of the desired allergen, namely the interaction of antigens foreign to the component with the antibodies and lymphocytes of the blood. Enough one lymphocyte to intercept the allergen, as the whole army is aggressively configured lymphocytes is moved to the initial infectious focus.
To move the lymphocytes, nature has chosen a certain movement, known as chemotaxis, in which cells are directed toward the accumulation of the substance. With allergic response such substance are inflammatory mediators and interleukins. Mediators produced by mast cells and secreted by the command of immune cells. Interleukins are allocated first lymphocyte in interaction with the allergen.
Mediators widen blood vessels at the site of contact with an alien substance and slow down blood flow, which helps slow the spread of the allergen on the body systems and the deposition of protective lymphocytes in the problem area.
The period of clinical manifestations
Clinical symptoms result from the effects of the mediators on the tissue components of the organism. If you are allergic to the waste products of cats most frequently involves the respiratory tract, the skin the autonomic nervous system. Lesions of the stomach and intestines almost never occur.
Speed and strength allergies to cats differs in different cases, depending on the duration of contact with the allergen and the nature of the substance. Sometimes the reaction occurs in the first 30 seconds and is characterized by rapid reaction. Those symptoms that appear within the subsequent day or days, usually are of a mild nature, it all depends on the individual reactivity of the human body.
Factors predisposing to the occurrence of allergies to cats
The conditions that cause allergies, are divided into:
- gemodificeerde factors;
- modifying factors.
Manifested in the human body:
- inadequate secretory immunity (specific and non-specific manifestations of resistance);
- manifestations of hereditary predispositiontransmitted by genetic means;
- peculiarities of the immune system of each person, increase of antibodies and cells in the blood compared to saline normalizations;
- increased sensitivity of peripheral tissues and the interaction of allergenic mediators in the tissues of the body, working to protect;
- violated from the nature of the deactivation of the allergenic mediators, control the volume of their allocation.
Them in the body are:
- stomach and intestinal inflammation chronic, debilitating barrier to the penetration of allergens;
- liver disease and liver failure, preventing the maintenance of a constant internal environment of the body;
- the infestation of the body by worms, producing chitin and causing inflammation of the tissues;
- residence or work in hostile environment;
- uncontrolled or unreasonable taking stimulants of the immune system;
- the lack of vitamins in the result of poor diet or other factors;
- reception of ACE inhibitors for a long time.
Signs of allergies to cats
The major allergens – wool and animal secretions, are manifested in the respiratory tract. If you are allergic to cats the respiratory system first reacts to the allergen, and symptoms of its defeat prevail over all others.
Symptoms of the respiratory system
Signs of respiratory lesions occur depending on the intensity of exposure, the localization of the pathogen and the immune response penetration of the allergen.
- husky voice and cough with swelling of the larynx and trachea and local inflammation, is found in dry and wet version of the cough;
- a blocked nasal passage or two, allergic rhinitis occurs in 75% of cases, include swelling of the nasopharynx or the growth of lymphoid tissue of the tonsils and of the mucous layer of the nasal sinuses;
- a blocked ear canal is uncommon, as it requires a bottom-up approach spreading to the Eustachian tubes;
- shortness of breath is expiratory, inspiratory and combined manifestation of hypoxia and cyanosis.
This kind of reactions are also often observed at the contact of the allergen with irritated and weakened skin areas.
On the skin there are such signs of Allergy:
- localized or scattered throughout the body rash, followed by elevation above the surface of the affected areas and the emergence of the United blisters, which subsequently may suppurate;
- itching coincides with the area of distribution of rash, the intensity is different and depends on the type of rash, sometimes itchy is a symptom of another disease;
- angioedema (under a different name angioedema) affects loose skin, as well as the eyelids, cheeks, lips, shells ears, labia in women and scrotum in men, usually the swelling goes down.
The symptoms of autonomic disorders allergic reaction to cats
Violations of the autonomic system is manifested in adults in contact with an allergic agent in the blood, with the formation of heavy compounds lymphocyte-allergen and anti-allergen. A large number of complexes in the blood involves a lot of inflammation mediators, other active biological substances, which causes a severe drop in blood pressure occurs and hypoxia of peripheral tissues and brain.
The symptoms of autonomic failure include:
- fast heartbeat, as a compensatory reaction to low blood pressure, reminds colocasia emerging at an alarming sense of discomfort in the chest area;
- rapid breathing is caused by a reaction to hypoxia due to tissue edema or as a result of the fear of death;
- loss of balance, nausea and spinning head is due to oxygen deficiency in the cerebellum, which occurs after a low pressure or anaphylactic shock;
- syncope (short time loss of consciousness) occurs because of a lack of oxygen in the brain.
Diagnosis of allergies to cats
Begins the examination of the patient with survey, analysis of complaints and inspection of the affected places on the body or mucous membranes. Sometimes Allergy symptoms are, then it is desirable to provide a photo for examination by a doctor.
To exclude an incorrect diagnosis, conduct laboratory studies and tests.
For further symptomatic signs conduct such tests:
- take the patient’s General analysis of blood, urine;
- investigate biochemical composition of the blood;
- make immunogram;
- identify lymphocytes, sensitized to a feline tissues and concrements;
- run scratch tests for conducting the tests.
For the treatment take medicinal drugs with a specific focus and strong actions, due to the rapid course of allergies:
- systemic corticosteroids (dexamethasone);
- antihistamines (fenistil gel, tablets suprastin, clemastine, loratidine, injection clemastin);
- stabilizers fat cell membranes (ketotifen);
- local corticosteroids (advantan ointment, spray budesonide);
- system adrenergic agonists (epinephrine);
- local agonists (Xylometazoline);
- bronchodilators (salbutamol spray).