Among the do-it-yourselfers, two main models are very popular – tracked vehicles and do-it-yourself snow and swamp vehicles on low-pressure tires. On these examples we will get acquainted with the machines.
On the territory of our country, there are not always good roads without swamps and dirt, therefore we need an all-terrain vehicle that can drive through inaccessible places. Next, we will consider home-made all-terrain vehicles on low-pressure tires, the principles of their creation and study some recommendations for novice designers. Let’s start with the classification of all-terrain vehicles.
Sufficiently complex all-terrain vehicles in manufacturing have advantages and negative qualities. Of the positive ones, this is good cross-country ability; in this respect, tracked models have no competitors. Machines of this class are often produced using VAZ engines, so they have more fuel consumption compared to others, but there is enough power reserve, unlike analogs with motorcycle power units.
Negative qualities are high fuel consumption and high cost of an all-terrain vehicle. Even taking into account the fact that many components may be available, cash costs will be greater when compared with wheeled models.
Low Pressure Tire Models
They are created on the basis of a frame and engine from a motorcycle. It is much easier to make a 3-wheeled ATV all-terrain vehicle than a caterpillar model, while there are no elements difficult to manufacture, and component parts are much cheaper and more affordable, the same power unit from a motorcycle will cost less. Of course, the degree of convenience is lower, but you can make a small cabin on a makeshift karakat and equip it with a heating device.
Performance characteristics of the unit
Here are the average technical characteristics of homemade products on low-pressure tires:
- breaking frame;
- URAL wheels
- Japanese engine, diesel, three cylinders, approximately 30 l / s;
- razdatka NIVA;
- steering gear.
All-terrain vehicles on special tires of low pressure are popular among designers and this has certain reasons, one of which is the simplicity of manufacture.
The principle of creating an all-terrain vehicle on wheels
First, decide on your needs and understand what type of machine you want to make. Much depends on the conditions and personal desire, so it is difficult to recommend something.
Recommendations for beginners:
- if there is no experience with gus mechanisms. type, then start with simple pneumatics;
- determine the operating conditions, capacity, carrying capacity and, based on these data, outline the general concept of the future machine;
- go to the outline design of the all-terrain vehicle, on which in general terms;
- outline the layout and location of all components and assemblies of the vehicle, do not forget about the driver with passengers, if the device is multi-seat.
Now we will determine the operating circumstances, characteristics such as capacity and lifting capacity. Based on this information, outline the concept of the car in the future and proceed to the draft all-terrain vehicle of the draft type, where in general there is a layout and location of each node and unit of the vehicle. It is important to remember the driver, passengers, their number in order to calculate the place for them.
Engine or walk-behind tractor
Not every power unit is suitable, the main requirement for it is a forced cooling function, because all-terrain vehicles drive at low speeds, and a simple motor from a moped can overheat. If it was decided to use a small engine from a motorcycle, then you need to cool it using a fan and a casing directing the movement of air flow.
The power unit must have a normal power reserve in order to provide the all-terrain vehicle with the ability to drive in different conditions. To calculate the appropriate one, use the formula: ndv. Max. = 10-3 Nud.mp; (ndv. The highest power, Nsp – specific power per ton of weight, which is in the range of 20 – 35 hp).
If you want to use the car all year round, it is better to use a 4-stroke power unit. These engines simply start and operate stably at sub-zero temperatures compared to 2-stroke models. There are no exact recommendations on the types of motor, gasoline or diesel, but everyone has their own characteristics and positive-negative qualities.
Among the motors of Russian manufacturers, motorbike options have proven themselves well, and among the automobile models of the ZAZ family are common. Quite often you can see the power units, which are assembled on the basis of tractor launchers using elements of other motors, they work with different types of clutch and gearboxes. Now homemade all-terrain vehicles are common, which consist of a walk-behind tractor, which is associated with the appearance on the market of cheap engines made in China.
Enthusiasts create home-made work on a caterpillar track and large tires using Chinese power units, which are manufactured according to the certificate of Japanese manufacturers. They are of high quality and low price at normal capacities.
The main parts of the machine, which can be purchased or manufactured independently on the basis of a walk-behind tractor:
- frame — organizes a mobile vehicle;
- rear axle (designed to mount the rear wheels);
- seat – it is recommended to protect it from water and dirt;
- Lighting is required for safe movement at any time.
An all-terrain vehicle manufactured on a motoblock basis is often small, carrying capacity is not more than 200 kg. The width can be calculated, taking into account the conditions of rollover stability, it should be in the range of 1.1 thousand mm and more.
New motor blocks from the manufacturers Neva, MTZ and Ugra are equipped with engines with a power above 10 hp, this is enough for driving at a speed of 10 km / h or more. On the road, during the passage of slurry or difficult places, the speed can be in the range of 1-2 km / h.
The chassis design has independent suspensions, while they are technologically more complex, but provide convenience to the driver and passengers. Together with pneumatic-based wheels, a good effect is obtained.
The frame is of different types: spacious, flat, solid or separate (for cars with tracks or wheels). At the same time, the articulated type of an all-terrain vehicle has good potential for design thought. But because of the difficulties, it finds little use in such a field as homemade cross-country vehicles.
Off-road vehicles are often created on the basis of a walk-behind tractor. There are several reasons for this:
- a secure transport unit that has high traction data is assembled on a frame;
- control transferred to convenient handles;
- the mass of motoblocks is small, so they will fit for transportation to a place in the trunk, body or on a car trailer.
The light mini-all-terrain vehicle has gained great popularity among hunters and fishermen, there are no prospects in the industry for the development of sets of mounted type of equipment that converts a walk-behind tractor into a high-cross-country vehicle. There are quite interesting examples of creating such products and a lot of room for ideas during the development of modern high-quality devices.
How to make a homemade wheeled all-terrain vehicle
Figure 1. Scheme of an all-terrain vehicle.
It is recommended to equip the unit with a gearbox, which reduces engine speed. Two types of units have optimal torque performance when the crankshaft rotational speed reaches 85% of maximum.
The engine must have a built-in compulsory system. cooling. When driving at low speed, the incoming flow will not be enough to maintain optimal thermal conditions.
All-terrain vehicle frame
Figure 2. Drawing of the fracture frame.
Between the two bridges, front and rear, you need a frame. To create it, it is better to use profile pipes of various types of cross-sections, which provide greater rigidity compared to rolled corners of the same mass.
The docking of the parts of the frame of the wheel type of an all-terrain vehicle can be rigid, then it will be formed in one format. Using heavy Neva motor-blocks, it should be noted that this design option will be the best.
Create a tipping frame for places with a complex profile. In this case, the connection is through the king pin. The front and rear axles are equipped with independent suspension. Specialists produce these all-terrain vehicles on the basis of Neva and Ugra motor-blocks.
In order to hunt and fish, you can make a wheeled all-terrain vehicle with a breaking frame, its cross-country ability will be better compared to the rigid structure.
Rear axle with suspension
Self-made enthusiasts, in order to simplify the design, use a ready-made rear axle from the car, for example, from the Moskvich-412 car. Light weight makes it possible to carry out installation on an all-terrain vehicle with a small weight. The suspension is created on shock absorbers to ensure a smooth ride and reduced vibration. Other specialists create an independent suspension on the wheels located at the rear. This approach was carried out on TS “Ant”. When driving, a slight swing is felt, while the wheels themselves feel little resistance on rough roads, fuel consumption is greatly reduced.
During the production of the all-terrain vehicle, the rear axle must be connected to the frame using long hardened bolts. For plastic joints rubberized inserts are used, for example, silent blocks. This improves the performance of the all-terrain vehicle, created on the basis of a walk-behind tractor.
The rear ski bridge is used in winter. The resistance to movement is small, while the design is greatly simplified.
To move on wet and dirty ground, you need to use lugs that provide good traction. Better off-road performance on a homemade snow and swamp vehicle on ultra-low pressure wheels, exerting little pressure on the ground, and the air contained in the chambers, provides buoyancy.
On the rear axle of the vehicle use homemade or special wheels for swamps. They are bought in the kit or in separate components: tire, camera, discs.
All-terrain vehicle based on a motoblock
Install a large branded camera on the disk, or another one from cars such as KAMAZ, GAZ 53.
Then do the following:
- in the passage of the disk you need to bring the air valve;
- inflate the wheel;
- install tires on a makeshift snowmobile.
You can increase the patency of the wheels on the low-pressure chambers by making a tread. It is necessary to additionally secure the cameras using chains, tape, tracks or another method.
Cut out the lug lug from the tire, the hook depth of the structure is more than 23 mm. The resistance to rolling increases, while the slipping coefficient is greatly reduced.
When preparing tools, spare parts and accessories, you can begin assembly according to plan. You need to perform the following actions:
- Install a walk-behind tractor on a finished or finished frame.
- Mount the rear axle and, if necessary, the front axle.
- Install the seat on the frame.
- If there is a drawing and diagram, mount the steering wheel.
- Attach the protection to the frame, make it of plastic or profiled sheet.
- The future driver needs to check the fit and, if necessary, use additional elements to configure it.
- Check brake performance.
- Install electrical circuits and lighting devices.
In the manufacture of individual elements and assemblies, it is necessary to check their functionality, a large margin of safety is provided here. After completing the tests, proceed to the field work and see how the car goes in different situations. To reduce pressure on the ground, use tracks whose weight extends over the area of the tracks. This propulsion unit based on a motoblock overcomes sands, wetlands, climbs and other obstacles.
There are home-made craftsmen who create tracks for tracks from a metal plate more than five millimeters thick. Rings from water pipes are attached to the plates. Another type of execution of the tracks is entirely made of polyvinyl chloride pipes, which are cut along. Track elements are mounted with each other on a conveyor product or other basis.
All-terrain vehicle tracks with engine from a walk-behind tractor
It is easiest to create them from materials of a composite type, for this they use glass cloth and epoxy resin. For the frame, reinforcement is used. In the special. forms create tracks. Having made a suitable amount, they are collected in a caterpillar. When creating composite tracks, components are used to connect wear-resistant steel elements.
There are different uses for trucks. The easiest method for producing tracks for all-terrain vehicles based on a walk-behind tractor is from tape. For the 1st truck, 2 strips will be needed – they are combined into a ring, and then a caterpillar is made using a steel pipe.
All-terrain vehicle with equipped berth
Construction will take at least 2 months. First you need to introduce the general layout, design the frame using the SolidWorks CAD software. This approach will save time. Using design drawings, you can translate them into metal without wasting time on fitting components.
An important task when creating this model of an all-terrain vehicle is to equip the device with a berth. For this purpose, homemade seats, moving along the runners on the sides, can be converted into a bed with a length of 1.9 thousand mm. This is true for the hunter, fisherman and those who want to spend the night in nature.
It is recommended to choose the front engine layout, because it provides the ability to plan the rear large luggage compartment, create a passenger seat. In general, there will be a lot of space compared to the rear-engine scheme.
- The basic part of the car is a boat body. Its frame is made of a 40×40 square profile, one and a half millimeter thick.
- To facilitate the construction on the diagonal, a profile of such dimensions 40x20x1.5 mm is recommended.
- For axles and ribs of the body, you need to use a professional sheet of 50x50x3 mm. Where he gets out of the body, you need to weld scarves to improve. In practice, for a small all-terrain vehicle, the strength of the body when applying the materials described above is sufficient.
Weld the body with a semiautomatic device (wire cross section 0.8 mm). On the outside, sheathe sheets of steel with a thickness of 1.25 mm, adjusting to the desired dimensions. Lay the sheets on the profile so that they come in with a 5 mm overlap.
Figure 5. Body dimensions – drawing.
The drawing shows the basis of the machine (source Umeltsi.ru). The top of the boat should be removable. Weld the frame from a profile measuring 20×20 mm, and in the lower part along the sides put sheets of 1.2 mm. Screw them with screws. The front part of the frame opening is closed by a small mesh, which allows air to pass through to the motor, because it is closed on the sides and needs to be cooled. The points of the docking of the elements during assembly must be anointed with sealant.
Engine and transmission
|Transmission||The five-speed from the VAZ of the classical type is fixed on the body with 4 bolts in front and 2 behind.|
|Cardan shaft||Passes cool. moment to the rear main axle gearbox. Gear Ratio: 1.2|
|Gear lever||It is located in the central part of the machine in length (it is recommended to change the location closer to the engine).|
|Gearbox||Provides 1: 2 reduction|
Attach the engine to the body frame, place a piece of rubber (thick) under the motor to reduce vibration.
From the gearbox to the box, install the chain from the motorcycle, in 12.7 mm increments. Its gear ratio is 1: 3.42. Transmission on the back: the front with 4 bolts and the rear with two.
Changing the trajectory is carried out by slowing the movement of the track from a specific side. The main brake cylinders are located on the sides at the sides, and not near the control levers. This arrangement allows the use of copper tubes for 2 brake lines.
The levers are made of a profile measuring 40×20 mm, the handles are made of pipes with a diameter of 16 mm. At the bottom, the levers are mounted to the pipes: right to elongated with an external size of 20 mm, and left to small, with a diameter of 25 mm. The main axis of the right lever goes from side to side and rests on bolts that rotate in the ears welded to the edges of the body frame. In the same way, the left side brake control is equipped, but the lever swings on a shortened pipe, which covers the first, turning. In a small gap between the pipes using a grease nipple, you need to pump a little grease.
On the axis of the drive wheel, a brake (disk) is installed, where two VAZ calipers for each wheel are used. Hydraulically connected in series with each other. The other 4 wheels are rollers and they rotate freely on the hubs.
Figure 6. Caterpillar swamp.
All wheels (3 pieces) of each side are located in the 1st plane vertically, and horizontally the middle bridge is 25 mm. As a caterpillar, you can use a conveyor belt (thickness 12 mm).
With it, you need to carry out some actions:
- Saw into strips 12 cm wide and 520 cm long.
- Cut 100 corners 25×25 mm 40 cm long into 50 into 1 truck.
- From this corner, saw the same number of parts, 10 cm long, and weld to the first in the center.
- Drill passages along the boundaries of all angles so that the M8 bolts pass freely in them, and the distance between the holes should be within 50 mm. Weld two-shaped fangs to the corners from the center, which are bent from a bar 10 mm in size. With corners, they form a road along which track elements will move. The height of the canine is 20 cm long.
- To bend the fangs you need to use a device such as a pipe bender. Secure the parts with M8 bolts with a distance of 100 mm on the tapes. The distance between them depends on the wheels.
Connect the two ends of the tapes with an overlap over the length of a little more than a step, so that there are 8 bolts (two corners). Here you need to use longer bolts, and then sew the tracks on the location of the rollers and pull the belts with tie rods for the load, and inflate the wheels to one atmosphere.