Golden mullet — Mugil auratus Risso, mullet, Saranac, bystrup, screature (small, 7-10 cm), cholera, Gulara, Ilaria, larich (young, 10-20 cm); longfinned mullet (eng.); plataria(Bulg.); lotregan (it.); Gold-Meerasche (it.); kelt (Norv.); cefal, singhil, ilarie (ROM.); Altun-bač-mullet (Tur.); muge (FR.).
Scales on the snout singila starts from the back of the nostrils. All the scales on the back have one canalizo. Adipose eyelid around the eye is missing, but if it happened, it was rudimentary.
Above the base of the pectoral fin not elongated lopatinski. Sides of the body are 6-7 brownish stripes. Bowel 3.9-4.5 times longer than body, round stomach. Pyloric appendages has 7-9. Transverse rows of scales 42-47, longitudinal 14-15. Vertebrae 24.
In Russia, akin to other types of mullets in the Black, Azov and Caspian seas estrenos, M. saliens, and (only in the Black and Azov), a few M. ramada and M. capito; in the Black, Azov and the sea of Japan striped mullet, M. cephalus; in the sea of Japan haarder, M. soiuy.
Home to the Golden mullet in the Atlantic ocean from England and Trondheim to the Canary Islands and South Africa; Mediterranean, Black and Azov sea; lake. Paleostomi at the mouth of the Rion. The most common of the mullet in the Black sea.
In 1930 the Golden mullet planted (along with astronoom) in the Caspian sea, is perfectly caught.
Golden mullet schooling, rapid marine fish, easily escaping from fishing gear, jumping over the top of the selection or going under yasnyy. Golden mullet are very sensitive to low temperature 6-8° C. it ceases to eat and out of the lagoons and bays with 2-3 loses its mobility, and with 1-1,5° dies. For singila optimum temperature of 23-25°; at this temperature there is the best growth.
Golden mullet can live for large changes in salinity. So, he comes in highly desalinated water (up to 0.05% — the Dnieper river at Kherson) before the mouths of the rivers, but found in very solomennik bays (in the Sivash to 57%).
When the salinity increase to 62.7% was observed mass mortality of singila. Golden mullet unpretentious to the content of oxygen in the water, makes even the presence of hydrogen sulfide.
Singila spawning occurs in the Black sea in July-October, in the open sea. There are indications that spawning occurs over the dense Cystoseira (August-September).
The Caspian sea is the spawning singila noted in September and October; in the Western part of the southern Caspian spawning was observed in the open sea at a distance of 20-50 m from shore at a water temperature of 25,6-29,4° and a salinity of 13%, over depths from 260 to 780 m.
Fertility singila varies from 158 to 4440 thousand of eggs in individuals with a length of 31 cm — 522,5 thousand, individuals of about 40 cm — 1350 thousand eggs.
Eggs plavucha, spherical, contain fat drop. The diameter of the swollen, developing eggs is equal to 0,84-0,85 mm, the diameter of fat drops Just 0.3 mm. the larvae have a length of about 2.4 mm, strongly pigmented.
Eggs and larvae are kept in the surface layers. By the end of October the fry reach a length of 2-3 cm By may of gotowicki grow to 4.4 cm.
In the Caspian sea and in the Atlantic ocean, the Golden mullet reaches a length 50-52 cm (without C), and in the Black sea, 43 cm (whole length). The industrial catch in the Black sea Golden mullet is found in length from 15 to 42 cm; in the Caspian sea Golden mullet dominated catches with a length of about 35 cm and weighing around 650 g, at the age of four years.
In the Mediterranean sea Golden mullet is growing worse than in the Caspian sea. In the Black sea males first spawn at age three to four years, with a length of 20-25 cm In the Caspian sea Golden mullet spawning begins in the fourth year, when the length is 32-34 cm
Singila fry feeds on plankton and detritus from the surface of the water. In the diet is dominated by diatoms (Coscinodiscus, Synedra),kornenozhki, Copepoda crustaceans and insect larvae (Chironomidae); less important are worms (Oligochaeta) and larvae of molluscs (Lamellibranchiala). The growth singila greater importance, his power becomes detritus. Adult Golden mullet scrapes fouling (periphyton) in the lagoons of sludge and stones in the sea.
Golden mullet winters in the sea. In the Black sea in mid-March — April approaches the coast and moving along them, passing through the Kerch Strait. Golden mullet migrates in the shallow lagoons and bays, preferring salty or more solomennyi (for example, the Sivash), and fattens them until the autumn. Juveniles (cholera) is somewhat earlier adults.
In the area of Gelendzhik — Anapa move singila from Batumi starts at the end of March, the height it falls in the middle of April, and by early June the course usually ends. In August, Mature Golden mullet begin to leave the Azov sea and estuaries (fry comes later). The course singila sexually Mature (spawning) occurs mainly in August — September
In the Caspian sea Golden mullet winters in the Bay area of Gasan-Kuli, in April and may goes to the North along the coast and reaches a Dead Kultuk; in October-November returns. In the area Kizil-su Golden mullet lasts from late April to October.
Golden mullet (adult fish and Tulare) gives about 80% of the total catch of mullet in Russia. In the Azov-black sea basin in the years 1936-1938 were extracted from 15.9 to 26.2 thousand quintals of mullet, including in the Black sea from 13 to 19 thousand qi in the sea of Azov from 2.9 to 7.2 thousand TS.
More than half of the total catch singila gives the black sea coast of the Crimea, about one-fifth — black sea coast of Caucasus, about one tenth — the Kerch Strait, about 7% — the Azov sea (Sivash) and the rest of the Ukrainian coast of the Black sea.
From other black sea countries: Romania catches of mullet to 11 thousand centners (1936/37g.), Bulgaria to 4 thousand quintals (1937-1939). The predominant share of the catch (in Romania at least 75% ) is a Golden mullet.
In the Caspian sea catch of mullet (singila and sharp-nosed) in 1940 amounted to more than 1,4 thousand kg, in 1941 — 2.4 thousand kg. Especially numerous of mullet off the coast of Iran, where in 1945, in the absence of special Providence, it was produced only as by-catch of about 3.5 thousand kg.
On the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas, there are the original “kularatne” economy. For them the block of zabawkami natural channels or artificial channels between estuaries and the sea. In the tamping put a trap Garda. Spring flow into the estuary is small mullet (screature), and in late may, the Garda closed and thus cut off the fish from the sea. In the fall using trap catch work up coolaroo message lagoons with the sea when it is resumed.
In the Odessa estuaries mullet fingerlings for five months with 3-4 grows up to 24 cm, and 0.35 to 140 g. In the Sivash in summer weight culary increases from 80 to 360, In the sea of Azov cholera is growing much more slowly, and by the fall its weight does not exceed 250 g
Reclamation and conversion of the lagoons can significantly increase the reserves and singila catches in the Azov-black sea basin. Singila catches in the Caspian sea can also be significantly increased.
Catch singila fixed Gill-nets (karaveli, skepasti), nets (Trammel, alkidnymi, zakidnogo nets (onshore and Alamanni), Cape, Venter and bast mats. The main fishing starts from the end of July, the height in November and ends in January. At Tarkhankut large catches are after the fall of the temperature of the water to 15-10°.
In the South Caspian (Kyzyl-su) ply from April to October, the largest catches are in may-July; in the North Caspian sea, off the coast of Mangyshlak catch from late may to September.
Singila meat is white, fat and juicy, very tasty. Most of the catch is salted and smoked or dried additionally. A small part of frozen. Of the catch is used for the production of high quality canned (“mullet in oil”, “mullet in tomato sauce”). Singila they prepare the eggs in the ovary, in dried form.