Body soma is elongated, in the front part rounded, posterior — laterally flattened, without scales, with a soft skin, mucus. Eyes small, placed closer to the neck. Snout broad, flattened, rounded. There are front and rear nostrils, separated from each other. Mouth wide, lower jaw slightly curled up, as a little longer than the upper. Teeth soma reminiscent of the brush and are on the palate and jaws. On the upper lip of the fish grows 2 large us, reaching to the end of the pectoral fin. Chin catfish has 2 pair of short whiskers, with whiskers in front three times shorter than the rear. The body is very dark on the back, on the sides dark green spots on the abdomen are bright. Interestingly, the large ponds with running water color soma lighter and in ponds with muddy standing water – almost black. The fin on the back short, close to the head, above the pectoral fins. Anal fin narrow, but long, connected to a rounded tail. In the pectoral fins of the outer beam is converted into a thorn, sometimes having a notch.
Som is growing rapidly, particularly in the southern river deltas. To 1 year in the Delta of the rivers Volga and Ural catfish reaches a length of 45 cm and weight of 600 grams, to 10 years — 125 cm and 18 kg, respectively. Thus in the Aral sea catfish at the age of 1 year has a length of 19 cm, and in 10 years — 95 cm Maximum soma known dimensions: length — 5 meters, a weight of 300 kg. currently, it is possible to catch specimens up to 2.5 meters and up to 150 kg weight, have lived for over 30 years. On average, catfishes weigh from 5 to 50 kg, reaches from 70 to 150 cm in length and live up to 15 years.
A way of life. Catfish is a predatory fish, usually found in the rivers, but sometimes it can also be found in some lakes and reservoirs, where the weak and good heating of the water. A sedentary lifestyle, usually lying at the bottom of the pit in the pond of muddy water, near cliffs and snags. He emerges from the pit mostly at dusk for hunting catches the fish fry, going in flocks and getting up against the tide in places of its active stroke or alone, looking for a victim of a mustache and the whole surface of the skin feeling the movement of the water. During spring floods catfish out of his hole and goes upstream to spawn in floodplain water bodies or in shallow marine areas near river deltas. Catfish in the winter gather in large flocks and are in deep holes without taking food until spring.
Food. Fry catfish feed on stoneflies, beetles, water bugs, clams, leeches, tadpoles, and juveniles and larvae of fish. Reaching lengths of 4 cm catfish are starting to try the fish, and on reaching 12 cm, it becomes their main food. In addition to fish catfish adults eat large insects (mole cricket, locusts), frogs, crayfish, rodents and Chicks of waterfowl. Typically food catfish in fresh water is a benthic fish: perch, carp, goby, juvenile sturgeon in reservoirs of the Volga and the deep sea — sprats and whitebait. Large catfish can attack water birds and even mammals that fall into the water.
Distribution. Catfish in Russia is found in the basin of the rivers Neva, Dnieper, Kuban, don, Terek, Volga and Ural. Often especially catfish can be found in the Delta areas of large rivers and reservoirs with slow drainage in the upper reaches of rivers is rare. Not found the longer rivers of the North Caucasus, in the waters Levitanskogo pool. In the Perm region, catfish found in the rivers Kama and Susiva, in Sverdlovsk region – the river Ufa, and Sarafanovskogo stocked catfish pond and pond fishing club, elm grove.
Fishing for catfish. Catfish best catch in the summer after spawning in warm rainy weather. Catfish are usually caught on the feeder, donkey, the float rod, the imitation fish zakidushki. Catch it and on the Seine between the banks of a narrow river, trying to fall into the pit in soma, and to the way in which he goes hunting: rolls, angles, holes, clumps of grass and the places with low flow. It is usually caught from the bottom, but during a thunderstorm can grab the bait close to the surface of the water. The nozzle can be any large pieces of meat, fish, liver, frogs, crayfish, grasshoppers and bait fish, and bait of bread and a thick porridge. In the spring of smaller catfish can be caught in the beam of the worm. Live bait at the bait and selected the most tenacious imitation fish (carp, Chub, tench, bream), and Kiddle put the bigger fish — pound bullhead, burbot, eel, and a small pickerel. In a quiet water live bait fastened behind his back, on the lips.
Fish catfish hampered not so much by his activity and how much weight. Som tries to cling to the items on the bottom, tangling the line in the snags. If catfish caught by the lip, the catfish doesn’t feel pain and flagrantly breaks the tackle, if the hook is deeply swallowed catfish comes to the surface much easier and rarely breaks down. Catfish, off the hook is becoming very careful in the choice of food and can take the same nozzle. Catfish weighing up to 4 kg pull smoothly, quickly, without jerks and immediately sent in a boat or on shore, without a landing net. Catfish up to 15 kg get a gaff in the lower jaw or arm, taking him by the gills or by having him in my mouth 4 fingers and strongly pressing your thumb on your chin, pressing it into his mouth. In this case, there are strong cuts on the fingers. Large specimens first brought to complete exhaustion, then jammed a blow to the head and pull with both hands. After waking up som can knock a fisherman off his feet and to jump out of the boat.
Completely dependent solely on in some place, dwells this kind of fish, its color will vary from deep black to very light yellow color, quite rare anglers will catch the catfish special instances of albino, which is white.
Features size of this fish
Long som the maximum is about five meters, and weighs about three hundred pounds, but the age of a hundred years. But to meet an ordinary catfish in longevity in our time — is a great rarity. On average the modern world, fish will live a maximum of twenty years and reach a weight of about eighty pounds.
This fish, quite common in the rivers of the European part of Russia, and in the lakes. As often as possible-loving catfish can be found in the sea.
Many now mistakenly believe that catfish is a fish scavengers that will be used as their food was just a dead fish or spoiled food. But still it is not absolutely correct. The main power of every young active soma is the fry, or small representatives of the crustaceans and any aquatic insects existing.
Already wealthy in the age of active enough, the young predator will prefer only live fish, and even small mammals. In addition to standard personal diet is quite a big fish family of catfish will attack any home the small animals, such as floating birds. Popular cases for game soma only human and sometimes cannibalism, as the giant fish can easily swallow prey that is not inferior to her in size and in weight.
The family of catfish prefers a deep stagnant not flowing water . Hunting this fish is very unusual, she will only lie on the back and quietly wait for his next victim.
Interesting facts about soma
Som now plays a huge industrial importance in the main pools and flowing rivers, exclusively of the sea of Azov and lower Volga. But now the markets, and all the shelves of grocery stores offer catfish, which come from fish farms or local farms where they are produced as simple plus possible fish together with carp.
This is due to the fact soma will be only just sufficient to separate the fins and the head, perepoloshit belly and then cut into the required pieces. Many did not like the odor of this fish, it is usually identical to the smell of slime. Get rid of it is incredibly easy for the reason that you need to soak the meat in fresh lemon juice for half an hour or to defend a few hours in fresh milk.
For example, you can bake it, broil it, make burgers, kebab and goulash. The meat is very tender with a sweet flavor that is highly appreciated by restaurateurs.
The secrets for successful fishing
Discover catfish is quite easy to be in any pond, this can be done by visual track, which it retained during the movement. Hunt the fish, solely based completely on your own sense of smell, for the reason that the bait is best used in the form of a variety of wastes.
When you go on active fishing for catfish, you should have a very strong not rushing tackle.