Kept usually bear a single, female with cubs of different ages. Males and females are territorial, private plot takes on average between 73 and 414 km, and in males it is about 7 times more than females. The boundaries of the area marked zapakowane labels and “bullies” — with scratches on prominent trees. Sometimes makes seasonal migrations in the mountains of the brown bearbeginning in the spring, feeding in the valleys, where once the snow melts, and then goes on loaches (Alpine meadows), then gradually descends into the forest zone, where the berries ripen and nuts.
The brown bear is omnivorous, but his diet for 3/4 plant: berries, acorns, nuts, roots, tubers and stems of grasses. In lean on berries years in the Northern areas the bears visit the crops of oats and southern corn crops; in the far East in the autumn come to feed on the cedar. In his diet also includes insects (ants, butterflies), worms, lizards, frogs, rodents (mice, marmots, ground squirrels, chipmunks), fish and predators. In summer, insects and their larvae sometimes make up 1/3 of the diet of the bear. Although predation is not an exemplary strategy for brown bears, they are mined and ungulates — ROE deer, fallow deer, reindeer, caribou, fallow deer.
Seasonal food is fish during spawning (anadromous salmonids), early spring, the rhizomes have a grizzly bear living in the Rocky mountains in the summer — butterflies hiding in the mountains among the rocks by the summer heat. When the fish is just beginning to arrive at the spawning season, bears eat the fish whole, then start to eat only the fatty parts — the skin, head, eggs and milt. In poor food years, bearssometimes attack livestock, ruin apiaries. Males can hunt the young of their own kind, preferring males as potential rivals in the future.
Seasonal cycles of life pronounced. By winter, the bear fattens subcutaneous fat (up to 180 kg) and in the fall lies in the den. Dens are located in a dry place, in most cases, in the pits under the protection of the windbreak or under twisted roots of trees. Less bears dig a shelter in the ground or occupy caves and crevices. Bears are favorite wintering places, where are they going from year to year with the whole neighborhood. In different parts of the winter sleep lasts from 75 to 195 days. Depending on climatic and other conditions the bears are in dens from October — November till March — April, 5-6 months. Longer all live in the dens of female bears with cubs, less — old males. On the South of the area where the winters are snowy, bears don’t hibernate at all. During the period of hibernation, the bear loses up to 80 kg of fat.
Contrary to popular belief, winter sleep brown bear shallow, in case of danger the animal wakes up and leaves the den, going in search of a new one. Sometimes the bear has no time for autumn as it should be fattening, so in winter wakes up and begins to wander in search of food; such bears are called rods. The connecting rods are very dangerous, hunger makes them ruthless predators — they attack anyone who gets in their way, even human. Such bears very little chance to survive until spring.
Despite an awkward look, a brown bear runs extremely fast — at speeds up to 50 km/h, excellent swimmer and in her youth it climbs trees (for old age he’s doing it reluctantly). One blow of his paw a raving bear is able to break the back of the bull, bison or Buffalo.
Hunting in the den
To go hunting on the den need so as to be in place by dawn. We must not forget that hunting den can go against the assumptions of the hunters. It has a lot of surprises – the bear can go in a place that will fire only when it appears in the thicket; or the wounded animal could escape or survive from the den of the bear is generally difficult – there are episodes on the hunt when a bear stays in the den for an hour and a half.
In the case when the bear is gone from the hunters to the wounded, and then do not shoot, to find this animal or crop the circle to hunt the next day is very difficult. Fifty meters from the den to prepare – Prime the guns, and then stand up so that one of the hunters stood near the den, being able to shoot out the bear.
Standing at the den, the hunter gives the signal, and the others get closer. Hunters stand on the South side from the brow of the den at 4-5 meters from her and lowered one dog. Don’t forget that the closer to the hunter will run out lifted the bear, the easier it is to shoot it in a lethal place. If the hunter strong nerves and he is fluent in his arms, with such a small distance it can kill a bear with one shot.
When the dog launched something watching her hunters define a brow dens and behavior of experienced huskies watch the behavior of the bear – lies or whether it is already out of the den. The second dog should be on a leash, because of the tense situation the dog can get under the shot.
When a bear dens raise experienced hunters, they usually try to pogranich jumped out of a bear shot in the pelvic area, thus they allow their dogs to work on it, and then finish off the beast by shooting him in the head. In the hunt for the den, you must be very careful of the slain beast immediately better. The bear may pretend to be dead and at the approach of hunters to catch them unawares.
Hunting on the oats
Most passes bear hunting in places where the fields penetrate the forests or on clearings.
To build a storage shed is necessary given the prevailing winds so they did not classify human odor in the direction from which you may receive bear. It is better to build on the edge of the field or in the undergrowth, jutting a wedge in the planting of oats. We should carefully remove all traces of construction in the form of felled branches and debris.
Sometimes you can watch for the bear in the hut disguised as a Bush, or a blind, arranged right in the middle of the oat field. The disadvantage of these places is a bad view of the area, and the beast will be easier to smell that human smell. To take place in the storage shed or Boma should be in the early evening, as the bear enters the oats out of the woods at dusk.
Maximum caution should be exercised in pursuit of a wounded bear, which he can ambush him walking on his trail hunter, hiding near his own trail.
In addition to bear hunting on the oats from the blind there is another way – the hunt for the oat approach. The gist of it is to bypass the early morning oat fields where they can feed the animals. Bear, after spending all night on the field and fascinated by eating oats, less careful than in the evening, and can keep it correctly conceal the hunter on aimed shot.
When wounded the beast to bring dogs you must be careful – dogs in loose and deep snow, less agile than the bear, and therefore in case of danger it must quickly finish to save the dog.
No need to torture a wounded animal for a long time, dogs have to give 3-4 minutes to Tinker with it and then to finish off the bear with a shot to the head.
When berlozhny protravlivayutsya hunting dog this can be useful in the sense that in the den along with an old dipper can be young bears last year lonaci or pestoni, and fighting with such young bears, dogs gain confidence and invaluable experience to bear.
Hunting with the approach
Hunting with the approach and in the morning, with sunrise, and in the evening before dusk and darkness. Hunting at dawn safer and more effective, as starting dawn allows you to look out for the bear and to aim accurately. Shooting a bear in the dark is less efficient in all respects, and worse aiming, and almost impossible, and unsafe search of a wounded animal.
Bear hunting with huskies
Late autumn and early winter, when bears enough opitny, more cumbersome, their skin becomes dense, with thick long hair, begins the hunt for the bear with the huskies. Huskies find the bear and hold it in place until the arrival of the hunter. For this hunt huskies long and carefully trained. Well-trained husky pursue the beast, but close to him is not suitable, but only barking. The voice of the huskies and go with the hunter. With the huskies as well to find the den, especially a successful hunt, when the snow is more shallow. Experienced, vicious to the beast, husky-mediatize possess the courage, agility and evasiveness: they are able to stop the jerks out of the den of a bear. Trying to escape from dog bites, the bear sits with his back to the stump, tree or shrub from defending them until the exact shot of the hunter will not stop this fight. The hurt, the huskies will not get far. If all the same it so happened that a wounded bear was gone from the hunter, you should not pursue him for the night (the short winter day), preferably in the morning on the trail to let a husky and barking dogs from approaching the goal.
Hunting over bait
Often the role of bait plays an iron barrel full of stones and pieces of meat or fish. The barrel must be firmly anchor over rocks or roots of large trees so that the bear couldn’t steal.
Another popular way of organizing bait is a small log-house made of logs, inside which is placed the carcass of a dead animal, which serves as bait. Logs for this bait is better to take birch – white background dark bearskin will be visible from afar. The head of a dead bait must be placed to the East or the North, or the bear may ignore your bait.
The bait is convenient to arrange so that the bear approached her on the open space. Around the bait and in the course of movement of the predator laid out some pieces of meat or fish, on which the bear will probably get chosen by the hunter. An ambush arranged several above the bait: on the hill, the hill, the river to approach the bears viewed better.
Shooting the bear, always aim just below the place you want to go. This is due to an optical illusion, due to which the bear always appears higher than it actually is.