A global catastrophe is becoming widespread extinction of rare animals. Unfortunately, our country is no exception – a lot of animals who are found in Russia, threatened with oblivion. However, this problem is not neglected, and it involved a special state bodies, whose function lies in maintaining the number and increase of offspring of rare and unique species of animals.
Red book, its value
Names animals which becomes vanishingly small, given in a special Handbook entitled the Red book of Russia.
There are types:
- vertebrates – 259;
- insects 39;
- reptiles – 21;
- mammals – 65;
- fish – 123;
- amphibians – 8.
Unfortunately, some species of animals in Russia, suchas the Transcaucasian tiger, the Dodo, Steller’s cow, balleroy deer, cave bear completely disappeared from the face of the Earth. People are unable to protect these fauna, but in their power to save other animals who are also threatened with oblivion.
A list and brief description of some of the red books of Russia
You should note that this is not a complete list of endangered animals of Russia. In addition, the registry of rare animals is quite dynamic, some of it disappear or move to another category of prevalence.
- Perhaps the most famous animals on the brink of extinction, became the Amur tiger. It is the only representative of its species living in such Northern latitudes. To survive he here allows five-centimeter layer of fat that protects the tiger in the time of severe frost. Today there are about 450 tigers (in 1979 they were 844) that are found in the Russian far East. In our country the prey of the Amur tiger, is strictly prohibited by law. Recently, it was decided to place some of the animals in the Yakut reserve “Pleistocene Park”. Also these animals are found in China, where the one killed by a tiger poacher himself the object of death.
- One of the most rare in our country has become a population of red (mountain) wolf. This animal weighing about 20 kg and a body length of approximately 1 m. the Beast has a gorgeous red coat, which was the main reason for its disappearance. He often comes under fire hunters who confuse red wolf with a Fox. The only well-marked external feature that distinguishes the beast from the redhead cheats – black tail. These animals unite in flocks of 10-12 individuals and do the hunting for deer, leopards, antelopes as well as smaller animals like rodents. It is noteworthy that they do not excavate for themselves holes and dens located in the crevices of mountains and cliffs. There are only 10 types of red wolf, 2 of which are in Russia. The habitat of the wolf – far East, from foreign countries – Mongolia and China.
- Another far Eastern rare animal is the Amur Goral, which is a subspecies of goat. The number today does not exceed 700 individuals. As a rule, animals live in small flocks of 6-8 Gorelov.
- Narrowly escaped complete extermination of the Atlantic walrus. By 1950, years of the beast that lives in the Kara and Barents seas, on the verge of extinction because of the activities of hunters. Today, thanks to the efforts of professionals, there is stabilization and even a slight increase in the number of walrus. The exact number of animals , scientists call it difficult, because they do not have a special technique to get to their rookeries. Length of the adult walrus is 4 meters, but the live weight reaches 1.5 tons.
- Rarity was the handsome white-beaked Dolphin. It is about 3 meters in length. Dolphins prefer to live in small groups of 5-7 individuals. Beast stands out from the black fins and side panels. Meet a Dolphin in the Baltic and Barents seas. The reason for the decline in their numbers is discharges chemicals and heavy metals in ocean water and hunting them, put on a stream in Scandinavia and the UK. These animals are still poorly understood, and some of the habits of beaked remain a mystery to scientists.
- Once a habitat of Asiatic Cheetah was a huge territory from the Indian subcontinent to the Fergana valley. Now they are a dying breed and there are more than three dozen animals. 10 of them are in their natural habitat, the rest kept in cages and zoos.
- One of the most famous varieties of horses – Przewalski’s horse – also now has the status of rare. Only a few thousand individuals exist today. In the early 90-ies was an experiment, a few horses were released into the nature in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP. There they died, and, on the contrary, began to proliferate, increasing the population to approximately 100 individuals.
- Another rare animal from the red book — Western Caucasian Tur (aka Caucasian mountain goat). Habitat its habitat is the part of the Russian-Georgian border. The number of animals fell due to the shooting of poachers. Another reason for the disappearance of the goats began their relationship with vostochnokanadskoj tours, resulting in unable to reproduce offspring.
- On the verge of extinction appeared and eared seals, better known as sivach. Its body length is about 3 meters, and weighs about a ton. These animals live on the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Alaska, the commander Islands.
- In Primorsky Krai found such rare animals as Amur or far Eastern leopard. In 2013 in Russia there were only 49 individuals. Found the beast still in China, North Korea and South Korea. In China taken special action to save leopards, and killing animals punishable by death. This is a very effective method, especially under the risk of extinction of these animals came from extermination by poachers.
- Snow leopard (IRBIS) have also enrolled in the Red book of Russia. His dwelling in inaccessible remote regions of Central Asia allowed the beast to escape from poachers, but nevertheless, these animals left is too little.
- Until recently, in Central Asia and the middle East have met only a few instances of wild ass belonging to the subspecies of the wild Asian donkey. Often referred to as palwolui. Recently, one of the Turkmen reserves for the sake of started artificial breeding of animals.
- In the Republic of Tuva, Altai and TRANS-Baikal territory while you can still see palazova cat, who is widely known as Pallas ‘ cat. This wild animal is known for its luxurious fluffy wool, 1 cm2 of his body have 9 thousand hairs. Weak scientists examined the cat, as he leads a secret lifestyle and almost never comes in contact with the person.
- Beautiful Mongolian gazelles had lived in the area South of the Altai mountains, but after the settlement of these territories by people of their population significantly decreased. The Mongolian gazelles reach 80-90 cm in height and weigh about 30-40 kg. they Have yellowish fur and black horns hollow. Their characteristic feature is the high activity and endurance. The Mongolian gazelles – classic representatives of the steppe and desert zones.
- In the harsh climate of the Arctic ocean is inhabited by another animal from the red book of Russia – the narwhal. It grows in length to 4.5-6 m and weighs 0,9-1,5 tons. The head of the animal is long, thin tusks, which narwhals are called the unicorns. They live in small flocks, and is able, like dolphins, to publish different sounds for communication. Feed mainly on shellfish and fish. Narwhal meat is tasty and nutritious, and their tusks are used in jewelry. All of this put unicorns on the brink of extinction, and today hunting them is punishable by huge fines in Russia, Canada and other countries of the habitat of narwhals.
- Mandarin – amazing small wood duck that also are rare animals. Males are notable for its bright coloration, the females are easier. They live in the mountains, on the banks of the various ponds of the Far East, and in the winter they fly to China and Japan. Food for them have acorns, algae, and frogs. The destruction of forests and poaching activities the population of Mandarin ducks has decreased significantly.
- In the lists of the red book got more and Daurian hedgehog. In Russia it is found in TRANS-Baikal territory, abroad – in Mongolia and Northern provinces of China. Leads a secret night life. It feeds mainly on beetles, grasshoppers and locusts, and small mammals like hamsters, frogs, toads, snakes, berries and carrion. Their population has declined markedly in the 1960s, when the urchins suffered from the pesticides used against rodents-carriers of the plague. In addition, the number of animals is strongly influenced by badgers, which feed Daurian hedgehogs. To date, experts estimate the number of animals, around 600 thousand individuals.
- The destruction of rodents-carriers of the plague most heavily affected small Mongolian marmot (tarbagan). He also carries the burdens of the actions of the hunters. Small populations persist today in Zabaykalsky Krai, the Republic of Tuva and parts of China and Mongolia.
This is only a brief list of animals that because of their rarity were in the Red book of Russia. To save these animals is just as important as difficult. However, to participate in this can any.
The person requires only:
- respect the nature;
- not to destroy animals unnecessarily;
- feed them whenever possible;
- keep their habitats clean, and integrity etc.
These joint actions, the people will not only save endangered animals, but also to prevent the decline in populations of other fauna.