Antarctica is unlike other continents. This is one of the coldest parts of the world where the temperature is extremely low. The air is very dry, cold? and besides penguins and seals, other terrestrial animals, the site was almost impossible to see. On the Islands you can find several varieties of worms, butterflies without wings (flightless) and crayfish. Among the birds most known for Plover and Pipit.
The fauna of Antarctica
In the summer here fly these birds:
- the gulls;
- petrels and others.
All the other inhabitants of Antarctica live in the ocean. This area has a huge number of predators, which, despite the snow cover, well survive, hunt and get his food. Here are all kinds of mammals, of poachers in the area is practically nonexistent, and those who live here, are old, not new residents. Seals are carnivorous animals of the family of pinnipeds. Thick layer of fat helps them to survive severe frosts of this region.
Water expanse of Antarctica are inhabited by many types of seals:
- the crab;
- southern elephant.
One of the inhabitants of this glacial continent is seal wedell. James Wedell — industrial commander of the expedition, and a resident of this continent, in whose honor was named this animal. This beast has a very nice smiling face, but it is not as attractive for its slanted cat’s eyes and a smile, no matter how strong cries which he utters from the bottom of the sea in the mating season.
Females and males are the same size and, of course, are the species of seals that can give birth to two at a time. Hatch their embryos after three weeks and a month and a half you weigh a hundred kilos. Puppies are born on the coast, the mother shortly before delivery comes ashore and after birth until the end of lactation period remains with the newly emerging puppy on the beach, but after milk feeding, the female lets her fetus for independent life.
This kind of mammals because of the lack of air gnaws glaciers, their teeth lose their sharpness and break. Therefore, the animals lose the ability to eat normally and have a life expectancy of not more than twenty years. The sea gets them the most reliable place of permanent residence, seals expose only their nostrils out of the water. It should be noted that, despite this fact, the seals wedell land do not like their enemies are leopard seals, which they catch and kill at the bottom.
It seems that on the shore, the seals see a lot worse than under water, very friendly with the people you meet and the animals that live next door to them. People notice in the case of very close contact, fall to the ground and greeted the people as if to say “salute”. In winter, the ice surface does not come out because of severe frosts that prevail in the area. Seals talking to each other, grunting and tyavkaya.
Rossa from the family of mammals and is one of the true seals. It was named after the American researcher Ross. In size it is from the family of the smallest of the Antarctic seals. Their body length can reach two meters in size. These animals have large amounts of fat and hide your head in this thick layer of fat to be able to protect themselves from the severe cold. Seals are very good divers and can swim at high speeds and hunt for small fish. Living this kind of seals, like the previous one, about twenty years.
They do not live in groups but rather prefer to live alone. He is thick and barrel-like, lives in places which are inaccessible to people. This predator sings sweetly. His language is incomprehensible to many but familiar to his neighbors. Likes to eat octopus and other mammals.
A crab-eater seal
The crab — one of the most common types in the world and belongs to the family of true seals. They are slender, muzzle them slightly elongated and thin. In color they are brown, but after moulting take creamy white color. Crabeater four times the weight of all the other seals. Although the title has the word crab, but their food they do not drink, these animals Antarctica likely to eat fish.
Their young are born in autumn and by the end of the milk feeding their weight is up to 110 pounds. The male at feeding time the puppy sits on the surface of the ice and not allowed to approach the female until the end of the feeding. Feed them two or three weeks, in the weight they put on four kilos a day. Seals jump from the ice, seemed a good dive into the water. Scientists suggest that this dexterity they have is that crabeater protect themselves from attacking predators. Nurture their children for about nine months.
Die and live at the bottom of the ocean, like the previous predators, for nearly twenty years.
There are two types of elephant seals: Northern and southern. North differs from South South and a narrower trunk. Due to the large number of hunters at one time and the type had almost disappeared from the face of the earth. The ban of fisheries in the territory has helped to restore a number of these elephants. South grade has also been strong Providence: they are mercilessly killed. But now they are under protection.
Elephant seals due process, similar to an elephant’s trunk, which begins to grow they have to eight years of life, got its name. They have body fat, small head compared to body, have fins instead of limbs. Live on land, but because of the obesity of your body it is very difficult to move around and prefer to sleep more. They sleep very soundly and during sleep will make a big snores. Sleeping under the sun and don’t like it when they Wake up. If you attempt raising them from the sleep they can kick or hit with a rock.
This species most of its life in water and comes on land only to mate. At this time, gather in groups, I prefer to live alone. Elephant seals due to the severity of their weight behind the production of food can dive to a depth of 1400 metres and remain under water long enough. Eat fish, in the stomach have the nuts to digest. Have thick skin and short fur. Females and males of this species differ greatly in size and are the largest among the pinnipeds among the seals. This species gives birth to only one cub.
After describing some facts from the life of pinnipeds, we can draw the following conclusions: despite the significant differences in size, live all the same rules for life. Stacked all the same, with the exception of the elephant, whose head less torso.
Pinnipeds spend a period of their time on land but, in fact, they are Maritime, because they feed in the water.
That’s where the elephants find food:
All elephant seals are more adapted to life in water than on land, are excellent swimmers, sailing, usually the forelegs. Most land among all is a crab-eater seal that goes on the ice and loves to sit on it. He deftly moves on the ice that not everyone would be able to catch. This kind of feels on the land confidently, because it is often suitable orcas.
Animals of this range have poor eyesight because they spend most of their lives in the sea, they have a good sense of smell thanks to vibrissa, which have all pinnipeds.
Penguins breed of birdsliving on the territory of Antarctica. These are the most common and popular of all the flying, living on the territory of Antarctica. Penguins, like other earth that live on glaciers, get your food in water, perfect dive to the depths and eat small fish and krill.
Consider and compare Emperor penguins and Adelie.
Adele is a type of in which the back and head and neck are black. Reproduce on land, and the rest of the time spend in the water. Males prepare a place for mating, then the females hatch their eggs. During the period of breeding females do not eat and lose half the weight.
But in the water they are excellent divers and find their own food very well. On land you can meet them at a walk alone, but most often in pairs. When on the shore you can compare them with the people walking around and discussing very important issues. Spend the summer in the sea, and in winter better offspring.
Emperor penguins in choosing a partner are monogamous, and among the large number of females males screaming fit and choose a mate, but after you select never change. Eggs are incubated by the male at first, and then — is female. Imperial females, like Adele, while feeding do not eat and also lose a lot of weight.
From the vast majority of birds , they differ in that when walking, keep your posture very straight and seem to be important and well-dressed people. Go slowly, awkwardly and, surprisingly, very smoothly flying over the water.
Penguins are a group of those animals whose lives are all the time the threat because of the great deal of number of enemies. They are primarily people who often destroy them, and some predator-type Petrel. The embryos often die due to insufficient quantities of food.
Penguins are intelligent animals, with short legs, very long neck, have feathers with scales. The beak they have big, and the head is quite small.
The penguins are at the stage of extinction, their population has dramatically decreased due to the melting of the ice, because their habitats are destroyed, and the resources of power are becoming less and less.
Antarctica — the land of eternal cold, frosts, strong winds, ice and snow. And the creatures living on its territory, a very unusual due to the harsh climatic conditions.
In Antarctica, people don’t live constantly, according to the status it does not apply to any state. Scientists from around the world come here for research, and only in this case the silence of the mainland is broken. It is the coldest area of the world and continent of the Earth, it recorded the lowest temperature.
This part of the world is a place of survival. Animals of Antarctica a very strong and formidable, but in spite of this to live here — means to fight and survive. Living predators here are fierce battles with their enemies, but in their places of residence they are friendly and very caring. This area serves as habitat for many animals. She is gorgeous and beautiful, in spite of all the hardship of life.