How does the horse know everything, but few know what are its specific parts and what function in the body they perform. In the physiology and anatomy of the horse needs to understand those who are going to associate with him his life.
Even if there was a desire to learn how to ride, you should have a good grasp of the structure of the horse’s body. Consider in more detail the anatomy and structure of the animal.
The skeleton is the basis of the body structure
The study of anatomy should begin with a consideration of the skeleton. Horse skeleton has a unique structure. To divide it into two parts: the peripheral and axial, each composed of specific components. The main feature of the skeleton of the horse – his incredible agility, aided by a large number of ligaments and joints. Through this animal makes a lot of moves and has good flexibility. All the bones fit together, or joints, or seams.
Is the skeleton of a horse of 252 bones, connected in sequence and form 5 groups.
- the spine;
- pelvic limb;
- the thoracic limbs.
Consider each group in more detail.
The spine – it consists of 54 vertebrae, connected in series with each other. They form the spine. But there are some breeds where the number of vertebrae may be different. The intervertebral space contains the spinal cord.
Thorax – consists of 37 bones, including 18 pairs of ribs. The thorax of the horse is a little compressed laterally, and the edges are attached with cartilage. This makes moving the chest during deep inhalation, to provide a lighter animal with a large amount of air.
The skull of the horse – is it 34 solid bone plates. Almost all of them seamed and fixed. The bones of the skull capable of withstanding heavy blows. The skull is the organ of hearing and the brain.
Limbs – they represented the bones of the girdle (pelvic or shoulder) and actually by the limbs. The basis of the shoulder girdle is represented by the blades, who with the help of muscles and ligaments that connect the thorax with the front limbs. The basis of the pelvic girdle – the pelvic bone that connects the hindquarters with the posterior section.
The skeleton of a horse and muscles determine the health of the animal. For example, the bones of horses riding breeds are longer and thinner than the heavy truck.
The way horses are different parts of the body that perform specific functions. They are over 60, and they are divided into groups.
The horse’s head should be in proportion to the body and can have a different profile. He is hook-nosed, straight, concave or pike. If the head is very small or too large, then it is considered a disadvantage.
The structure of the head is represented by the following parts:
- nose (nostrils);
- the bridge of the nose;
Ears depending on the breed, are different lengths and shapes, but it is not permissible droopy ears. Eyes also come in various shapes and sizes, but the best are the large almond-shaped eyes. The nostrils should be large and wide open, and a large distance between podmechenno provides full breath.
You should regularly inspect the oral cavity of the animal and to monitor the condition of his teeth. The teeth can determine whether the horse’s health problems. Over the years, changing form and color, but with improper care or feeding can severely deteriorate and break off.
In the normal adult, the stallion must have 40 teeth and a Mare 36. The reason is that males have 4 canines.
Eyesight the animal fairly large overview of. Due to the fact that his eyes are on the sides of the muzzle, the pet sees everything that happens on the side, not even turning head to the side. Eye of the horse wide open, quite convex, with a thin eyelid and long eyelashes. Overly bulging eyes indicate impaired vision. The pupil and iris are black or brown.
Under the anatomy of the horse implies a certain structure of the body.
Its main components are:
- lower back;
The shape of each body part determines the scope of use of the animal. Heavyweights are different loose type of Constitution and massiveness, and riding horses easier and bony.
The neck of the workers and riding breeds of horses varies by shape, width and length. Due to high and long neck with movable neck makes the horse lighter and more of a broad movement that should harness and riding horses. But, massive and wide neck with a pronounced crest characteristic of the working breeds. Thanks to it is good traction force.
- high and long;
- low and mild.
From it also depends on the ability to implement high amount of the forelegs. That’s why horses should be high and long withers, and the draught is low and wide.
The chest of animals includes such vital organs as the lungs and heart, therefore, it is desirable that it was wide and deep. But here working and riding horses, there are differences – the breast develops more in depth than the first.
Ideally, the back should be straight, smooth and muscular. The disadvantages include roach or provostry the back and too short or long waist. The stomach should not SAG, and be fit and toned.
Another indicator of the health of the horse is croup, which affects the strength of the push back legs.
- wide or narrow;
- long or short;
- lowered or direct.
The heavy-duty bifurcated grains, and upland species it is long and narrow.
Horse legs are one of the main parts of the exterior. The experienced horsemen on the legs of the animal immediately identify cross-country abilities of animals. For example, a long and oblique shoulder is considered an indicator of horse breed. The longer, the better the removal and lifting of the forelegs and wider and wider the course. But working horses is much more important to have a uniform, so the blade they should be short and direct.
If the blade is too inclined and oblique, it is considered a defect. But too much video – too bad, because the legs bear a large load. The amplitude of the hind limbs during movement depends on the shape of the thigh. It should be muscular and rather long.
Horses should regularly inspect the feet and palpate joints and ligaments, to avoid swelling and swelling. The wrist should be symmetrical and well-defined. Setting the rear and front legs is also of great importance.
Any deviation from the norm can lead to the following defects:
- O or X-shape joints;
The hoof is a kind of shoes a horse, so their shape and health affects the health of the animal. A healthy hoof must be strong, without cracks and creases, with a strong arrow. The size and shape of the hoof depends on the breed of the horse. For example, draft horses and working horses, they are large, wide, have a low heel and a more flat sole. Hoof riding horses much longer and have a high heel.
Due to the fact that the stratum corneum of the hoof is constantly growing, it is necessary to periodically clean and rasp. Horses working on hard surfaces, and suffering from the foot a large load, you must Shoe.
The tail and mane
The mane of the horse covers the entire neck area. It starts from forehead and ends at the withers. The tail starts at the place where the croup is completed and continues until putevogo joint. The length depends on the breed and method of keeping of the animal. The mane and tail should be the same color, but they are usually different from the main color of the body.
The whole body of the animal is covered with a special cover with hair. In the summer he is sleek and short, and in winter, when there is a temperature decrease, it becomes long and soft with a dense undercoat. At the condition of the hair can judge whether the conditions in which the horse. In addition, horses have a special tactile hairs or vibrissae. They are located in the region of the ears, nose, lips, near eyes. Such dense thick hair perform the role nerve endings.
So we discussed, what are the parts of the horse. Someone who keeps an animal must know the anatomy and structure of the horse. Only in this case, it is possible to use the animal for different purposes, e.g., carrying with it a cargo or using for racing.