Horse breeds draft horses and their characteristics

In the early years horses were the only method of transportation. But not every breed of horses adapted to the dimensions of transportation. And there are horses-heavyweights that are capable of carrying heavy loads and at the same time to move at a gallop and overcome obstacles on your way.

Medieval ancestors of modern draft horses tired quickly, so I eventually deduced those are easily tolerated loading. Over time, there are heavy draft horses like the Shire horse, the dogs and percherons, which are popular in our days.

About them and other breeds of draught horses, and we will tell below.

Horse breeds draft horses in Russia

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire grew rapidly, but the horse-heavy-duty it is not displayed, while in the agricultural sector and not only demand for them was huge. Buy heavy horses abroad was not everyone on the force, but even if someone did, then had problems with them, because the horses are poorly adapted to Russian conditions and low feed quality.

Native breeds of heavy horses were bred by foreign:

  • Shires;
  • the Ardennes;
  • Clydesdale;
  • the persheron;
  • Brabancon.

Russian scientists have deduced breed of horses-heavy horses:

  • Soviet;
  • Vladimir;
  • Russian.
Characteristics of the Russian heavy breeds of horses

This heavy breed has been bred a little more than was years ago, by crossing draft horses with Ardennes – fine heavy draft horses inharmonious addition hails from Belgium. Due to the selection of the Ardennes began to have a good addition and form.

And 1900 in France passed the world’s fair, where special attention was paid to Russian Arden, recognized as one of the best working breeds. The star was the brown stallion Loaf won a gold medal.

The external features of the breed are:

  • short height the height to 150 cm;
  • endurance;
  • enough power;
  • females have good milk production.
Horse-heavy-duty Soviet breed

A breed developed through the crossing of English Suffolk or Belgian Brabancon draft with Russian horses. For agricultural work animals used for the first three years of life, then they become producers.

The distinctive features of Soviet heavies:

  • large animal;
  • height can reach 1.7 m;
  • the average body mass of the order of tons;
  • the mane and tail are thick;
  • medium size head;
  • neck and legs are muscular;
  • hooves the right shape;
  • even back;
  • the chest is broad;
  • you may experience a slight clubfoot.
Description Vladimir draft horses

The Vladimir heavy draft horse appeared in the state Gavrilov Posad stud in 1886 by crossing the English Clydesdale with local females, hardy and undemanding. From this cross came to light horses, with attractive appearance, energetic, heroic strength and good adaptation skills.

In the process of development of the breed donors has varied, in the formation of a Vladimir draft horses participated even the famous English Shires. While officially this breed of horses recognized only to the middle of the last century.

Exterior features the Vladimir heavy truck are as follows:

  • massiveness;
  • height to 1.7 m;
  • body type large;
  • the head is large, and the profile convex;
  • shoulder long and oblique;
  • the neck is long and powerful;
  • croup moderately lowered;
  • legs are strong and covered with fur, inherited from the English breeds;
  • the tail and mane thick;
  • the suit can be brown, red or sometimes black.

Vladimir the horses are very friendly, balanced and calm. Puberty they begin early enough.

The beauty of the Vladimir heavy truck can not attract the representatives of this breed is now widely used in sport hunting or equestrian tourism, and in distant times they were harnessed to a cart, plow or sleigh.

Characteristics of other breeds of heavy horses

Now let’s look at the characteristics of other breeds of heavy horses, some of them directly participated in the formation of the Russian horse breeds and not only.

For example, the Australian trailer is the result of crossing other breeds known:

  • Suffolk;
  • Shires;
  • the persheron;
  • Clydesdale.

These horses weigh on average between 600 to 900 pounds, their height is about 170 cm Australian horses are incredibly friendly and well adapted to work, sit well in harness and under saddle. They can be spotted , or have a solid color without spots. The legs of the animal have a medium coat, legs and mane have high density.

Description Of Brabancon

Different representatives of this breed called the Belgian draught. They are appreciated for excellent power ability and attractive appearance. The growth of their average – around 165 cm These horses are of excellent breed qualities and good character.

Among the external characteristics:

  • the trunk is thick and strong;
  • legs short;
  • joints are expressed well;
  • the lower part of the legs hairy;
  • the mane is short.
The forgotten breed – bityug

This ancient breed originally from Russia these days is not preserved. But information remained that its representatives were extremely hard-working and well appreciated in households. The average baugi had a height of about 158 inches, had brown or blue suit. This breed arose from the crossing of trotters with Russian heavy truck.

Bityukov also called “dray” horses. Unfortunately, did not survive their photos, but if you look at the photo of the Russian heavies, you can roughly understand how he could look like baugi.

French boulonnais draught horses

Boulonnais draught horses originally from France. Many of them consider to be the most graceful representatives of the heavy draft horses. These horses are perfectly able to go to the lynx on the run, moving easily and quickly. Individuals can be both small and large. Nowadays large specimens are used primarily for riding in the sled, also in the meat industry. But the small type is now almost gone.

Exterior features are:

  • average weight is from 700 to 900 kg;
  • average height – 170 cm;
  • the ears are delicate;
  • the eyes are large;
  • the forehead is very high;
  • a mane of curly.

And boulonnais draught horses have a wonderful kind nature.

Irish truck and its features

These horses are incredibly agile, have very hardy and undemanding nature. The animal has relatively small dimensions, including indicators of growth, but this does not affect the power of such a horse.

Currently Irish breed most often used in hunting or sporting purposes. They have a very attractive appearance, posture smooth, straight back, sloping croup with a high tail.

The animal may have these types of colors:

  • grey;
  • chestnut;
  • red;
  • crow;
  • different colors with white spots.

Horse data perfectly able to go into a canter and can overcome great obstacles.

Clydesdale or Scottish heavy draft horse

This breed is considered to be attractive, it has good ride quality. It was developed in Scotland and successfully bred in the UK in our time. Horses are great want the step and trot. Their body is highly potent, broad bones, and muscle mass is large. And that animal had a high efficiency, it should be kept in good conditions and give him a high quality food.

Suit this breed can be the following:

  • black;
  • Chala;
  • Bay;
  • grey;
  • red.

Legs of the horse should have a pronounced joints and be massive.

Percheron: characteristic of the breed

Specimens characterized by a large mass of high growth and in this regard it is safe to be called Champions. We have individuals who at withers had a height of over two meters. Percherons are very hardy and attractive, able to run for several hours. They have Arabic roots, so they have a beautiful and textured head and neat ears.

The acceptable colors of the breed:

  • crow;
  • grey;
  • in apples;
  • other.

In our day percherons are bred without obrosla feet, making them easier to treat and the animal will be easier to work the land.


This trailer has a massive trunk, which the horse’s legs may seem short. Their size is relatively small, they differ in the performance of unusual patience. Usually have a brown color and may have different coloring variations:

  • lemon;
  • mealy;
  • gold;
  • copper and other.

Typical for the breed, the mark is white “socks” or star in the forehead. Representatives of this breed are ideal for children learning riding, they are docile and not prone to conflicts.

Shayr: the main heavyweights in the world

The Shire is the most famous breed of horses-heavy horses in the world with a beautiful appearance. These English horses are prestigious in terms of breeding, noble and are very expensive. They are often attracted to participate in the competition where they took first place. Shires always have a coat on his feet regardless of the region their habitat. Most often suit horses are Bay or dark Bay, but there are other colours. Have a skittish nature in the harness are difficult and do not like to apply physical force.

As already mentioned, different breeds of horses-heavy horses often participate in various competitions. For the first time competitions of such horses began to hold in the Soviet Union. The parameters of the breed included such indicators as the endurance traction, maximum traction and speed of delivery trot and walk.

Such competitions are often held in USA, Japan, Italy and other countries. Also take into account the breed of the horse, its nature, contact with people, appearance and more.

We have now discussed, what is different from the other heavy draft breeds of horses, and read the description of some of them.

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