Today a team of horses can be found only on city squares, in parks. People no longer use horses for their intended purpose. The horse became entertainment. They are no longer carrying cargo and not traveling.
But some 70 years ago, every teenager knew what the horse harness and understand what it means the correct harness for the horse.
Few of our contemporaries do not know what is in the harness for the horse, do not understand why you need each item, and certainly will not be able to wear it. This article aims to give necessary information about it.
What is the harness?
Harness or horse harness is a system of straps and gadgets, worn on the horse for further harnessing to a cart or for riding.
When you mention harness, then mean horse harness complete with reins and bridle.
Harness is needed for transmission of the tractive force of the animal cart. Properly selected, worn and customized this item is based on simple management and horse health. For example, if you incorrectly fasten their seat belts, they can namyat soft tissue of the animal, or to cause burns. After such damage, the horse is unlikely to work.
Horse harness needs to be durable and lightweight. Before the skin to the straps made from specially tanned leather. One durable but require special care. Today, horse harness made from modern materials. They are stronger, lighter and require minimal maintenance.
The story of the harness
According to historical records, people began to use a horse harness around the 2nd Millennium before our this. At least this is evidenced by the items of harness found in ancient tombs. However, many researchers tend to assume that ancient people began to use the harness yet.
In ancient times, the horse owners paid great attention not only to the quality of the harness, but also its appearance. The fact that the artistic design of this harness was to identify the social status of the owner.
Fashion beautiful harness was in the Middle ages. At that time was guided by the functionality. Horses were used mainly for transport of heavy goods. Nobody came just to ride these animals.
Around the mid-16th century harnesses for the horses were once again doing beautiful and high quality. Due to the occurrence in the everyday life of people and carriages, open horse-drawn carriages.
Unfortunately, today the horse harness has completely lost its meaning. Technique completely replaced horses from human activities. They are used in sports and entertainment.
The types of trappings
All options are divided into 3 groups according to the use:
Also, the harness is divided into 3 groups according to the number vragimuh horses:
- Pair. These harnesses are used for sled rig.
- Mnogoloshadnyh. Also used in sledding.
The most popular are the following types of harness:
- One-horse Russian. It is often called the European harness.
- Postrochno-dyshlova. In such a harness can be used as one horse and two.
- Ostrobotnia. It is very easy to use, but it is not good enough, as not saving a horse’s health. For safety when using this harness it is recommended to equip the wagon brake.
- Techniczna. This is a very complex system of harnessing horses. At the time it was very popular, but today is not used at all.
- A combined team. This design of harness came to us from Europe. It can be used as a forward, and shafts.
The most simple in use and design are considered one-horse Russian and ostromecska harness.
Russian one-horse or arc
The main difference between this horse harness from the others is the presence of the arc. It is made the old-fashioned way from a single piece of wood. With the help of tugs to hold the shafts.
In the old days were the professionals, engaged in manufacturing arcs. The fact that you can make them was not easy: it was necessary to choose and handle to get a durable, elastic and light-weight item harness.
Russian one-horse harness consists of the following elements:
- Arc. About it was told above.
- The clamp. One of the main elements of the one-horse harness. It provides a tractive effort from the horse cart. Clamps come in different sizes. The length of this element is measured from the inner pillow top to mites. Width is measured between the holes for tugs. The clamp consists of items such as: ticks, pillows, tugs, jomalina, tyre, supone, Gort and lining. Be sure the clamp is adjusted in size for a specific horse. After adjustment, it should fit snugly to the top of the withers of the animal, based on the crest of the neck and good to cuddle up to the shoulders. Sides of the body horse yoke must rely on the muscles of the shoulder blades.
- The breeching. This element covers the body of the horse. Its task is to support the clamp during braking.
- Saddle. It is located a little below the withers. It has the task of cushioning the shock loads on the back of the animal during movement. The saddle is adapted to the size of the withers of a horse.
- Keresztely. This element finds the harness next to the saddle and keeps the design of the clamp, arcs, and shafts. In addition, it distributes the weight more evenly throughout the structure.
- Podruchnik. Allows to avoid sharp jerks of the collar and shafts when the horse started at a trot or at a gallop.
- Bridle. Usually used bridle model.
- The reins. This is an elongated version of the bridle. Is used to control the horse from the wagon. The reins are fastened to translam. Previously, this item was made of leather. Now it’s made from thick canvas.
Ostromecska or bezuhova harness
Its main difference from the Russian one-horse harness is the lack of the arc. That is, the driving force is transmitted directly through the clamp. The latter is attached to the wagon forward.
The design of such a horse harness comprises:
- Clip with animal ears, to which are attached the traces.
- Postromok themselves.
- The ring gear.
- Horty replacement tugs
The European version of this harness is characterized in that it has no clamp. Instead, he uses the shutter. This durable leather breastplate with rings, to which via metal carabiners fastened the traces. While the reins are passed through the cervical ring and a special clamp on the ring gear.
In Russian and European versions postroman harness the most important role for the harness. It is responsible for uniform distribution of pressure throughout the body of the horse.
With the right equipment horse harness is 5 cm below the point of the buttock. If it is raised above this level, it will constantly ride up and RUB the rump of the animal. If you drop below the specified level, it will interfere with the horse to go.
The length of shlei chosen so that between its lateral strap and hips of the horse was placed palm.
As for the thickness of the bib in the European version postroman harness, it should be at least 2.5 cm.
How to harness a horse harness in Russian?
First, you need to put on the bridle. For this you need to stand to the left of the horse, left hand to hold it, and the right strap of the bridle through the ears. The bit should be administered over the edge, where there are no teeth. Typically, a horse with such action she opens her mouth.
When equipped sleds in the winter time before pulling the metal bit in the animal’s mouth, they should be thoroughly warm.
Next, comes the turn of the ring gear. Put it sharply forward closer to the withers, and then corrected in the allotted space. This approach allows you to straighten your hair clammy under the ring gear.
After applying the ring gear should you tighten the girth. When tightening often the rider rests a foot in the ribs of the horse to provide the necessary force. If the girth will not be properly snug saddle can jump on the back and a good namyat soft fabric that will not benefit the horse’s health.
After tightening the girth on the horse collar and harness. The clamp should be put on upside down. This will allow you to evenly distribute the breeching. After extending the last clip is turned in its normal position. To turn it should be to the head. When turning I have to be careful in which direction laid mane. You can not turn the clamp against its styling.
In the next stage of wznoszenie need to have a horse in the shafts, lay the arc and attach the tugs to the shafts arc. Supone tighten with the expectation that it would be perpendicular to the shafts. Its all going in a loop, which can be easily dissolved.
Finally, fixed kereskedelmi. It threaded through the staples of the saddle and lobe the girth. The end of kereskedelmi attached to the right shaft.
At the last stage tied podruchnik. Thus it is necessary to provide such tension to the shafts during the movement are not jumping up and down.