Eagles are kings of the Kingdom of birds. From time immemorial among all the birds the eagles are the most brave, strong and noble.
Today there are about 40 species in the world fauna, which are divided into several genera in the family accipitridae. Next-of-kin eagle – harpies, eagles and Buzzards.
The appearance of the eagles
Almost all the members of a species differ large size. Some individuals may reach 90 to 95 cm, with females much more males. The weight of the eagle from 3 to 7 kg. the mass of the representatives of the smaller species less.
The appearance of the eagle:
- Body large, well-muscled. Strong legs and a long tail on them reaches the fingers.
- The neck is muscular and strong, the head is compact. The eyeball is not quite active but well-developed neck compensates for this deficiency.
- The bill and claws are impressive, the end of which is bent. These qualities make the eagle a real predator. Life talons and beak grow, but the bird during the life of their grind.
- Wings long and wide, their wingspan reaches 2.5 meters. Such a scale helps long enough to hover at a high distance from the ground (over 700 meters).
- Tail rather short, narrow. Each species has its special tail. For example, some of the eagles he’s uncool, wedge-shaped, and here at crested eagles and comb it consists of a tuft of feathers.
Eyesight is very sharp, thanks to him he is able to look out for small prey at great distances. For example, the eagle can see a hare at a distance up to 2 km Peripheral vision allows you to survey a territory of 12 square kilometers. Hearing the eagle needed to communicate with other individuals, but the sense of smell is very poorly developed.
The flight of a bird is accompanied by a powerful and deep flap. Even with strong gusts of wind, the eagle is able to cope with air flow, and dive at speeds up to 330 km per hour.
How many eagles live? The average life expectancy of 30 years, but individuals of large species can live up to 45-50 years.
Color of eagles divided into two types – plain and contrast. The majority of bird species painted in a solid color, such as brown, red, black. Often, solid color diluted with spots or patches on the wings.
Some eagles have contrasting color. So, in combat, the hawk eagles and crowned top and the head is dark, but the bottom lighter. Wings and belly are they diluted with stripes and spots. Some birds on the head there is tuft of long feathers.
The lifestyle of an eagle
Despite the power and strength, eagles are very vulnerable link in the ecological chain. In the nature of enemies they have little. The eagle dies in battle with other individuals or with the wolf. Much more dangerous for them hunger. In search of large prey, birds often migrate from the temperate zone to the South. Over time, disappear from the flora of the large animals, swings open virgin, and familiar food for them is becoming hard to obtain.
Besides, how many eagles are killed under power lines, in the regeneration of housing on the post. Today the European species on the brink of extinction, many listed in the Red books of different countries.
Place of residence
The distribution of birds is very diverse, and the place of residence depend on the species. Almost all the members of a species prefer to settle away from a man, in mountainous or semi-open landscapes.
Widely distributed species of the genus of true eagles. They prefer subtropical and temperate climate.
So, they can meet:
- in the North-West of Scotland to Kazakhstan;
- in the South-East from Mongolia to India.
Prefer to settle in the steppes, mountains and semi-deserts, which border the treeless plains. Eagles living in Africa (crested, comb-like, crowned), live in sparse forests and bushes of the Savannah.
The Golden eagle, found in Russia (South Primorye and North of the Caucasus), like to nest in the area of remote forests, but the Australian eagle thrives in extensive forests of Guinea. The eagle is the Imperial eagle prefers to stay the steppes of Ukraine and Kazakhstan, forests of Spain, Romania and the Czech Republic. Eagles can be found in China and Iran, Greece and Germany, Hungary and Slovakia.
These predators live in pairs. To find food, they are a few hours floating in the air, looking for prey in the air and on the ground. When the prey is found, they rapidly fly down, pull legs and grasp the prey with sharp claws. Further, the predator stun the victim with severe blows of the beak.
Very often the prey of the eagle be large animals:
- foxes and gazelles;
- the wolf and deer;
- antelope and monkeys.
Hunting small game (marmots, hares, ferrets and others) for it is easy and simple. When the predator could not long to find food, he turns into a bird scavenger.
When the eagle caught the game, try as quickly as possible to eat it on the spot. Shares a part of production it in one case, feeding their Chicks. After the meal the eagles drink a lot and for a long time to clean its feathers.
These birds breed once a year. Individuals living in southern areas, eggs are laid in winter, North in the spring. Basically prefer to nest high in the trees and rocks, rarely on earth. It happens that the eagles are taking over the nests of falcons, hawks, crows and finish them under your size. Such dwelling uses a pair of several years, each year placing of new branches. Thus, over time, the nest is like a huge pile of branches.
The clutch is 2 eggs. The eggs hatch 35-45 days (depending on species). All care about the future offspring rests on the shoulders of the female. The male at this time provides her with food. After hatching, the female some time to warm them, and then gradually flies out to hunt.
The parents of these predators is very gentle and affectionate. But the Chicks, on the contrary, bloodthirsty. From the first days of life, engage in a battle for food. Often, strong chick salawaat weaker, and then eats it.
The juveniles begin to hunt independently after the first flight. Young individuals migrate to the time until you find a pair. In 4-5 years the eagles comes puberty. The loyalty of its second half kept until his death.
Species of eagles
The hawk family consists of 70 genera. In turn, they are 14 subfamilies. Modern classification allocates the 17 key species of eagles that have differences between them.
Here are some of them:
- The Golden eagle is the largest eagle in the world, its weight can reach up to 7 kg. the body Length 76-95 cm, wingspan 2-2,35 meters. The Golden eagles are common in Mexico, Africa, Asia, the mountains of European countries, the Islands of the Mediterranean sea. In Russia the bird is distributed from Kamchatka to the Amur region.
- Hawk-eagle has black-brown back and white belly, with transverse lines of darker shade. Bird weight about 2.5 kg, body length 67-77 cm, length of the wings 46-56 cm Lives in the South of Europe and in Africa. In European countries, members of the species are used as hunting birds.
- Stone eagle inhabits the steppes and savannas of South-West Africa, Iran and India. The body weight of males is about 2 kg, females – 1,5–2,5 kg. body Length 63-73 cm, a wingspan of 155-175 cm Externally, the bird resembles a steppe eagle. This species is considered endangered and listed in the Red book of the Russian Federation.
- The steppe eagle. The adult has dark-brown color of the feathers and red spot on the head. Body length 60-80 cm, wingspan 215-225 cm steppe eagle from 2.8 to 5 kg. the Species are few, lives in the steppes of Central Asia. The species listed in the Red book of the Russian Federation.
- The burial ground is a rare species, similar in appearance to the Golden eagle, white epaulets at the shoulders. Members of the species are very vocal, they can be heard at a distance of 1 km. Length of the body of the burial ground is 73-85 cm, wingspan 170-215 cm, weight predator of 2.7–4.7 kg. Prefers to nest in forest-steppe areas of India, Mongolia, Asia. Found in the Central part of Russia.
- Eagle dwarf – representatives of a small, 1.3 kg, body length not more than 57 cm, the Size and shape of the body resembles Buzzards. The wingspan of 100-130 see just Prefers to nest in the Sudan, Egypt, Libya, France, Greece and Turkey. In Russia it is distributed in the suburbs of Tambov and Tula, in Transbaikalia and Altai Krai. Migrates to North Africa and the middle East.
- Silver eagle. A bird with a wingspan of 127-160 cm and a body length 57-62 see Prevalent in South Africa.
- Lesser spotted eagle. Weight individuals of 1.5–1.9 kg, body length 63-66 see nesting In Russia in Novgorod, Tula, Leningrad, Moscow region. But also common species in Central and Eastern Europe. Prefer to migrate to South East Africa.
- The greater spotted eagle. Bird weight of 1.5–3 kg, body length of 65-74 cm This species is darker and larger than small. Widespread in Eastern Europe, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia. Migrating to Iran, India, and Africa.