During the 1964-1966 years completed the construction of the Dnieper dam of the Kiev hydroelectric station, with the result that on the Northern borders of Kiev, near the old Vyshgorod showed up in the Kiev storage tank, topped the area of the Gomel (Belarus), Chernigov and also Kiev regions. Its size is 110 kilometres, and size?
at up to 12 kilometres, typical depth — — 4 m, maximum depth 14 m, the shoreline is 520 km and also the water Exchange occurs depending on the water web content of 8-15 times throughout the year. The storage tank is filled with water in the springtime. Annual fluctuations in water level can get to 1.5 m.
the appropriate Bank of the tank are somewhat high, left — — reduced, canopy. The adjacent shallow-water locations of depths up to 2.5-3 m is 33-48% of the area. As a result of the excellent warm sunlight, and also the existence of considerable amounts of mineral as well as organic materials, these areas are disordered with higher aquatic plants; particularly the Northern shallow area, at the mouths of rivers flowing into the tank, where reeds, reeds and also sedges in position form a strip in width of 150-200 m Along the left Bank of the dam cleaned to shield the surrounding fields from flooding.
Behind the dam is furnished with a drainage canal size of around 60 kilometres, it is connected with the channel of the Gums. The oxygen web content in water 0.3-1 mg/ l in wintertime to practically 13 mg/ l in the summertime, specifically in the surface layers of the water column, where algae that create ««» flowers » of water. Fast advancement, and afterwards withering away to break down the top quality of water, triggering the fatality of fish and also its food microorganisms. The intensity of the process considerably influences the rate of water exchange in June and July.
With sufficient autoceste and also a mild warm-up tank « blossom » is less extreme than in reduced flowage and also extended heat. In the winter, also, is the absence of oxygen, leading to suffocation of the fish, covering almost all the storage tank. This is because of the lowering of the water level and the flow from the container of the Pripyat overload waters with low oxygen content. In tank there are numerous areas, each identified by certain features. So, Dnieper ples placed in the network of the Dnieper as well as lay him in the floodplain above the confluence of the Dnieper as well as the Pripyat, is extremely shallow.
Exact Same Pripyat and Plyos. Their top components are in fact networks of the Dnieper and Pripyat with a little slower flow as well as higher water degree. They differ little from those of their sites located above the area of wedging out of the storage tank. Base, expanded portions of these ples seriopusly, densely thick with higher marine plants as well as algae. The exact same shallow and Teterevsky ples, nevertheless, the effect of the Teteriv river on the routine of the river and also its vegetation and also fauna is much less than that of the Dnieper as well as Pripyat.
The major ples — — from the confluence of the Dnieper as well as Pripyat can be split into three areas. The lower border of the upper component is C. Strakholissya. Right here shallow water with midsts up to 3 m are almost three-quarters of the whole location. They are deep zerostat aquatic vegetation and also algae. This area is highly affected Vaserstein ples.
Hereof, the hydrochemical functions of the water on the left side have a lot alike with the Dnieper waters, and the best — — pripiatskiy. The bottom of the deep function of the middle part of the main ples is Rudnya Tolokonsky. Places with midsts to 3 m is not more than one third of the area. Residence of water depend on the quantity of blending of the upper waters of the above and also Teterivsky ples. The reduced part of the major ples that occupies the room from Ore Tolokonnikova to the dam of the Kiev hydroelectric terminal, deep — — water. Depending on the water regime in vodohranilishe distinguish between drainage location and area of long-term flooding. Within the drain area allot subbands temporary stopki. She is swamped with srediny March throughout of June. Here is meadow plants. Below as well as swim in the springtime fish for reproducing. Here are the rapidly developing animal as well as vegetable microorganisms, which, along with flooding waters destroyed to the reservoir.
They give it feed various groups of animals, including fish, or influence the activity of various microorganisms and also water high quality. A particular feature of the Kiev storage tank, situated on the riverbed of the Dnieper over the rest from reservoirs, is that there is created a primary circulation of the Dnieper, and also in the spring there is a big distinction in water levels between the upper component and the main surface. The springtime flood swamped big locations along the riverbeds of the Dnieper as well as Pripyat and those beside the top of the tank. Additionally, it has an open top, allows you to fish under damaging problems for recreation and also migrate into the Dnieper as well as Pripyat.
In this case, the waters of the Kiev reservoir is a kind of analogue of the Dnieper-bug estuary from which fish migrated for generating to the reduced reaches of the Dnieper, as well as several of them increased above Kiev. Such migration is carried out with fish of the Kiev tank as past its top, and also in the tributaries. In the mid 70’s of the twentieth century, they described the bream, which is avoiding « blooming» water in the Kiev tank climbed up the Dnieper river for tens of kilometers.
From the mouth of Grouse in April bream was raised in his instructions, as well as after spawning during April and also June returned to the tank. At the same time same activity was carried out as well as bream. In September, well specified wintering and also generating migration in second half of October, its schools appear in the top of the storage tank, and in November (mostly individuals of older age) — — the Grouse and also the Already climbing during the wintertime in their beds at a range of 30-50 kilometres from the mouth. The same migration described in pike, pike-perch etc. Up until the reservoir they were not visible from the location of feeding, wintering and spawning of these fish lay nearly next door.
However this topic calls for a different light. And also yet, the Kiev reservoir is defined by excellent circulation, an open top as well as maintaining numerous locations where the habitat of the fish are close to those that remained in before the building of the dam. It preserved nearly all kinds of fish, but altered the measurable distribution of agents of the angling populace.
Dramatically lowered the number of fish whose recreation needs a tidy sandy bottom and rapid existing — — klepci, Chub, Podust, barbel, IDE, Jorge, Nosara the like. Their problems of reproduction are really weakened about the reduction of flowage. The mass of steel roach, pike, tench, bream, Zope, silver crucian carp, grim, Rudd, perch, a fish coming from the lakes complex. There are catfish and also sabrefish. It ought to be noted that the Kiev storage tank — — the just one which protected favorable problems for reproduction of Sichel. In the nick of time for its population need to be prudent: it is a real rep for addition in the Red publication of Ukraine, since it is detailed in the Red book of the International Union for conservation of nature (1996 ).
In the tank possessed carp, silver carp, hybrids of carp as well as crucian carp, carp, Amur, silver carp, white Amur, pike-perch. In the lake region periodically found a script, pike, perch, tench, Chub. Typically you can find roach, bream, Rudd, Podust, much more typical — — Dace, grim, gudgeon as well as other low-value fish. Close ratio and fish in the Dnieper spur. Usually, in storage tank there are more than 40 species of fish. The wealth of fishes of the Kiev storage tank are primarily affected by human tasks and natural variables.
Just in the springtime of 2005, straight to the closure of fisheries before the spawning period, from the Kiev storage tank were lowered to the water, leading to the previous island came to be a component of the coast where you can drive autos. Also worse, the image is recorded in pictures of witnesses: an area of 4-5 m2 can be counted 50-60 dead fish, the mass of each of which is not less than 300 g, or 1 m 2 not much less than 10 fish. In regards to 1 hectares weight of the fish, the dead, as much as 3 t And the amount of acres were in the waters of the tank, nobody will certainly state.
As it is impossible to figure out the weight of the fish staying on the naked base and in the multiple networks of poachers. The total loss of fish as a result of a sudden descent of water in the storage tank is 3-5 thousand heaps! That is, the restoration of fish supplies at the present level ought to be 10-15 years, and the population not get out of the waters of the storage tank not less 15-22. 5 tonnes.