Golden mullet (Mugil auratus Risso)

In Russia, comparable to various other sorts of mullets in the Black, Azov as well as Caspian seas estrenos, M. saliens, as well as (only in the Black and also Azov), a couple of M. ramada and also M. capito; in the Black, Azov as well as the sea of Japan removed mullet, M. cephalus; in the sea of Japan haarder, M. soiuy.

Golden mullet — — Mugil auratus Risso, mullet, Saranac, bystrup, screature (little, 7-10 centimeters), cholera, Gulara, Ilaria, larich (young, 10-20 centimeters); longfinned mullet (eng.); plataria(Bulg.); lotregan (it.); Gold-Meerasche (it.); kelt (Norv.); cefal, singhil, ilarie (ROM.); Altun-bač-mullet (Tur.); muge (FR.).

Ranges on the snout singila starts from the rear of the nostrils. All the scales on the back have one canalizo. Adipose eyelid around the eye is missing out on, yet if it occurred, it was rudimentary.

Over the base of the pectoral fin not extended lopatinski. Sides of the body are 6-7 brown stripes. Digestive tract 3.9-4.5 times longer than body, round tummy. Pyloric appendages has 7-9. Transverse rows of ranges 42-47, longitudinal 14-15. Vertebrae 24.

Residence to the Golden mullet in the Atlantic sea from England as well as Trondheim to the Canary Islands as well as South Africa; Mediterranean, Black and also Azov sea; lake. Paleostomi at the mouth of the Rion. The most usual of the mullet in the Black sea.

In 1930 the Golden mullet grown (along with astronoom) in the Caspian sea, is completely captured.

Golden mullet education, quick aquatic fish, easily escaping from angling gear, jumping over the top of the option or going under yasnyy. Golden mullet are really conscious reduced temperature level 6-8 ° C. it stops to eat as well as out of the shallows and bays with 2-3 sheds its mobility, as well as with 1-1,5 ° dies. For singila optimum temperature level of 23-25 °; at this temperature level there is the best development.

Golden mullet can live for big modifications in salinity. So, he is available in extremely desalinated water (up to 0.05% — — the Dnieper river at Kherson) before the mouths of the rivers, but discovered in very solomennik bays (in the Sivash to 57%).

When the salinity rise to 62.7% was observed mass mortality of singila. Golden mullet unpretentious to the web content of oxygen in the water, makes the existence of hydrogen sulfide.

Singila spawning occurs in the Black sea in July-October, outdoors sea. There are indicators that generating takes place over the dense Cystoseira (August-September).

The Caspian sea is the generating singila kept in mind in September and October; in the Western component of the southern Caspian spawning was observed outdoors sea at a range of 20-50 m from coast at a water temperature level of 25,6-29,4 ° and also a salinity of 13%, over depths from 260 to 780 m.

Fertility singila varies from 158 to 4440 countless eggs in individuals with a size of 31 centimeters — — 522,5 thousand, individuals of around 40 centimeters — — 1350 thousand eggs

. Eggs plavucha, round, include fat decrease. The diameter of the swollen, establishing eggs amounts to 0,84-0,85 mm, the diameter of fat drops Just 0.3 mm. the larvae have a size of concerning 2.4 mm, highly pigmented.

Eggs and larvae are maintained in the surface layers. By the end of October the fry reach a size of 2-3 centimeters By may of gotowicki grow to 4.4 cm.

In the Caspian sea as well as in the Atlantic ocean, the Golden mullet reaches a length 50-52 cm (without C), as well as in the Black sea, 43 centimeters (entire length). The commercial catch in the Black sea Golden mullet is found in size from 15 to 42 centimeters; in the Caspian sea Golden mullet controlled catches with a length of about 35 centimeters and considering around 650 g, at the age of 4 years.

In the Mediterranean sea Golden mullet is growing even worse than in the Caspian sea. In the Black sea men very first spawn at age 3 to four years, with a length of 20-25 cm In the Caspian sea Golden mullet spawning begins in the 4th year, when the size is 32-34 cm

Singila fry feeds upon plankton as well as detritus from the surface of the water. In the diet is controlled by diatoms (Coscinodiscus, Synedra), kornenozhki, Copepoda crustaceans and also insect larvae (Chironomidae); less important are worms (Oligochaeta) and also larvae of molluscs (Lamellibranchiala). The growth singila higher value, his power becomes detritus. Grown-up Golden mullet scratches fouling (periphyton) in the lagoons of sludge and also rocks in the sea.

Golden mullet winter seasons in the sea. In the Black sea in mid-March — — April approaches the coast as well as moving along them, going through the Kerch Strait. Golden mullet moves in the shallow lagoons and bays, choosing salty or much more solomennyi (for instance, the Sivash), as well as fattens them up until the autumn. Juveniles (cholera) is rather earlier grownups.

In the location of Gelendzhik — — Anapa move singila from Batumi starts at the end of March, the height it drops in the middle of April, as well as by early June the training course typically finishes. In August, Mature Golden mullet start to leave the Azov sea as well as tidewaters (fry comes later). The program singila sexually Mature (generating) occurs mainly in August — — September In the Caspian sea Golden mullet winter seasons in the Bay area of Gasan-Kuli, in April as well as may goes to the North along the shore and also gets to a Dead Kultuk; in October-November returns. In the area Kizil-su Golden mullet lasts from late April to October.

Golden mullet (grown-up fish as well as Tulare) provides concerning 80% of the overall catch of mullet in Russia. In the Azov-black sea container in the years 1936-1938 were extracted from 15.9 to 26.2 thousand quintals of mullet, including in the Black sea from 13 to 19 thousand qi in the sea of Azov from 2.9 to 7.2 thousand TS.

Over half of the complete catch singila offers the black sea coastline of the Crimea, regarding one-fifth — — black sea shore of Caucasus, about one tenth — — the Kerch Strait, about 7% — — the Azov sea(Sivash) and the rest of the Ukrainian coastline of the Black sea.
From other black sea nations: Romania catches of mullet to 11 thousand centners (1936/37g.), Bulgaria to 4 thousand quintals (1937-1939). The primary share of the catch (in Romania at least 75%) is a Golden mullet.

In the Caspian sea catch of mullet (singila as well as sharp-nosed) in 1940 amounted to more than 1,4 thousand kg, in 1941 — — 2.4 thousand kg. Specifically various of mullet off the shore of Iran, where in 1945, in the absence of special Providence, it was created just as by-catch of concerning 3.5 thousand kg.

On the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black seas, there are the initial « kularatne » economy. For them the block of zabawkami natural networks or synthetic networks between estuaries and also the sea. In the tamping placed a trap Garda. Spring flow right into the tidewater is small mullet (screature), and in late might, the Garda closed and hence cut off the fish from the sea. In the fall making use of trap catch develop coolaroo message shallows with the sea when it is resumed.

In the Odessa tidewaters mullet fingerlings for 5 months with 3-4 matures to 24 cm, as well as 0.35 to 140 g. In the Sivash in summer season weight culary increases from 80 to 360, In the sea of Azov cholera is growing a lot more slowly, and also by the fall its weight does not surpass 250 g

Recovery as well as conversion of the lagoons can dramatically increase the reserves and also singila catches in the Azov-black sea basin. Singila captures in the Caspian sea can likewise be considerably enhanced.

Capture singila fixed Gill-nets (karaveli, skepasti), webs (Trammel, alkidnymi, zakidnogo webs (onshore and Alamanni), Cape, Venter as well as bast floor coverings. The major angling begins with the end of July, the elevation in November as well as ends in January. At Tarkhankut big catches seek the autumn of the temperature level of the water to 15-10 °.
In the South Caspian (Kyzyl-su) ply from April to October, the biggest catches remain in may-July; in the North Caspian sea, off the coastline of Mangyshlak catch from late might to September.

Singila meat is white, fat and juicy, extremely delicious. Most of the catch is salted as well as smoked or dried furthermore. A little component of frozen. Of the catch is utilized for the manufacturing of high quality canned (« mullet»in oil », « mullet in tomato sauce »). Singila they prepare the eggs in the ovary, in dried out form.

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