Omul (Coregonus autumnalis)

Have Cisco the mouth end, the axis of the body passes through the middle of the eye, the reduced jaw does not discuss the top, normally of the jaw of equal size. The pigmentation of the back varies from brown to green, flanks silvery.

Clearly expressed distinctions in between males and also females, not only during spawning, men have an extra obvious epithelial tubercles.

In Baikal omul penetrated from the Arctic ocean by means of the river system concerning 20 thousand years back, i.e. during the last glaciation. As an outcome of adjustments to environmental conditions in the lake, he formed the intraspecific forms, which vary in several morphological attributes and also attributes of the environment.

Presently in lake Baikal there are 3 groups the opportunity to capture Arctic Cisco with morphological and ecological distinctions: pelagic (Selenge), coastal (Barguzin and Severobaikalsk), benthos-deep (Embassy, Chivyrkuisky and various other populaces recreating in little rivers). The basis of each team are populaces that differ by environment, time and places (different by the size of the Baikal tributaries) of spawning.

Arctic Cisco live to 16-20 years (Lena), but many catches are dominated by individuals of 10-11 years. Usually the size of Mature fish 26-40 cm and also weight regarding 1 kg., there are people as much as 64 centimeters long and also considering 2-3 kg., and also in the Indigirka — — to 5.2 kg. Baikal omul smaller, yet also right here prior to there were individuals considering 7-10 kg.

Cisco is a catadromous fish. Arctic Cisco from the rivers bent on the feeding premises in the sea, utilizing not only the inlets and bays, however also the entire coastal zone of polar seas. Of all white fish the omul is the most Northern regions can hold up against salinity as much as 20-22, periodically goes into the water with a greater salinity, in the duration of summer foraging takes place in the Kara sea and also get to the brand-new Siberian Islands.

— In the biggest inflow of Baikal — the Selenga generates pelagic omul (mnogorazemny ), which has a cigar-shaped body, large eyes, slim back fin, often resting on the Gill arch endurances (44-55). He lives in the pelagic area of lake Baikal, during spawning, ascends the river up to 1600 kilometres, and also is Powered by living in the water column organisms: zooplankton, macrohectopus, pelagic Bykovym and also their larvae. It wintertimes at a depth of 200-300 meters.

In medium-length coastal rivers to spawn omul (srednetagelaya). Fish has a long head, high body and host fin, rarely resting Gill endurances 40-48. It feeds in the coastal zone of Baikal for generating comes into the rivers Upper Angara (640 km), Kichera (150 kilometres), as well as Barguzin (400 km). Feed upon zooplankton (23%), medium-sized macrohectopus (34%), pelagic gobies (26%) as well as various other things (17%).

Benthic-deep-water omul (melodically) populates lake Baikal at a depth of 350 m is Characterized by the greatest height of the body as well as back fin, a long head, a handful (36-44) harsh and long Gill rakers. It spawns in small tributaries of lake Baikal with a size of generating the method from 3-5 kilometres (Bezymyanka and R. R. Maly chivurkuy) to 20-30 km (the river Great Chivyrkuy and R. Bolshaya Rechka). Food is dominated by macrohectopus tool size (52%), fish (25%), benthic gammarids (12%) and zooplankton (10%). The Posolsky omul 1933 synthetically reproduced at the Bolsherechensky fish manufacturing facility.

Arctic Cisco in the sea preys on large crustaceans — — shrimps, mysidae, juvenile gobies, fry of whitefish. Reaching places with a high concentration of plankton, fish transfers to the diet of planktonic crustaceans. Baikal omul feeds upon zooplankton, shrimps as well as fish fry.

Arctic Cisco end up being Mature at the age 6-8 years of ages when it gets to the length of 35 centimeters On spawning rises in the rivers, sometimes for fairly fars away (as much as 1500 kilometres). During generating, the fish does not eat as well as drops weight. Spawning takes place in October, noted the admissions of spawning, so for the life the female has time to spawn just 2-3 times. Fertility is equal 16-60, an average of 20-30 thousand eggs. Flock spawning provides individuals from 4 to 13 years (the Pechora). After generating omul sinking into the sea.

Baikal omul it Matures in the 5th year of life at a length of 27-28 centimeters, a flock spawning provides individuals aged 4 to 9 years. In rivers Ambassadorial trash (Large, Kultushnaya, Abramikha) for reproduction comes in two shoals in September and also October, at a water temperature level of 10-13 ° C and also 3-4 ° C respectively. It spawns on stony pebbly dirt, with a rapid existing. Generating generally happens in the evening and also night hours. Spawned Cisco rolls down to the lake.

The fecundity of Arctic Cisco from 4 to 40 thousand eggs, the dimension of the calf bones 2-2,5 mm. Eggs attached to the ground, as well as at water temperature levels of 0.2-2 ° C. the Embryogenesis lasts approximately 190-200 days. Larvae size of 10-12. 5 mm. and also a weight of 6-7 mg. show up in late April — — early might, at a water temperature of from 0.2 to 6.5 ° C. the Hatched larvae over water demolition in the Embassy COP where they eat and expand. Eating victim, the larvae make tosses from a distance of 3-5 mm. approximately the age of 30 days they intensively feed upon planktonic organisms, and their food consists of greater than 55 types of invertebrates belonging to 15 different groups.

In Russia, the Arctic omul populates all the Northern rivers from Mezen in the West to Chaunskaya Bay in the East, additionally Obi, is, in the Penzhina, also populates the Arctic coastline of North America from Cape barrow to the Gulf Cornelsen. This catadromous types. Baikal omul lives just in lake Baikal, increasing to spawn in the river. Baikal omul presented to Mongolia in 1956-1957., where he currently lives permanently (oz.Hovsgol and also influent rivers). Reproduced omul in the European component of Russia and also in some foreign nations, however self-reproducing populaces no place.

Cisco — — famous Delicatessens hero songs, in our entry associated with Baikal, although most of it is created in rivers from Veltae (to the West of the Pechora river) to Alaska and Northern Canada. This large fish is a target types in all Siberian rivers, other than the Ob, which for one reason or another he does not go, though there is in the Gulf of Ob. There are summer season (June-July) and fall program omul.

Baikal omul is the things of angling in Baikal. In 1969, researchers kept in mind a substantial reduction in the variety of fish, as well as a result angling was forbidden. Many thanks to a range of ecological tasks by 1979, its populace was restored as well as the restriction was eliminated. Presently, the populace is being significantly reduced due to energetic angling. The population of the Baikal omul for several years remain in a state of anxiety. Catches as well as population of the Baikal omul over the last few years, are plummeting. Intro of limitations on his catch up until does not boost the circumstance.

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