Fish of the herring family are discovered in all seas surrounding our country. A lot of them are things of fishery, in some periods of the year, they are eye-catching to fishermens. There have to do with 160 varieties of herring. I will identify only a few of them will begin with the ocean (S. barengus L).
Atlantic, Murmansk herring is different, as all the nautical herring, the large mouth; top jaw there is no Central notch; tummy pointed; anal fin rays are not lengthened.
Silver with greenish-blue back of the fish has tiny, slim fins, which lie in the middle of the back as well as abdomen. Body length as much as 35 centimeters Spread in the Barents sea and in the ‘throat’ of the White sea. Spawning occurs near the North-West shore of Norway. After spawning the herring plumps East and also North of spawning grounds. Drifting to the North-East, the fry of the Atlantic herring settled in the Barents sea. When the herring reaches the age of four, return migration in the Norwegian sea starts. The pack is divided right into age categories. Grownups eat zooplankton and also fingerlings.
Baltic herring, Baltic herring, — — the average body length of 14-16 centimeters, the popular huge herring-strimling — — 37 cm prevails in the Baltic sea, particularly numerous in the Gulf of Riga. Comes in refreshed areas and also river mouths. It generates near the coast. Caviar postpones in your area on rocks and also undersea plants at midsts from 3 to 12 m. the Small kind types from mid-may to very early June, major — — September-early October. Generate, exposed sea, winters comprehensive. Zooplankter.
Pacific, Eastern herring. Huge — — approximately 47 cm in size, typical — to 37 see tiny Eyes. Common along the whole Asian coastline (from the Laptev sea to the sea of Japan including). Discovered in the lakes of eared seal, of Vilyuchinsky volcano (Kamchatka). Generates in spring at the shore, in rough locations with a deepness of 10-15 m, as well as some individuals generate in lakes as well as briny bays. Generated, declines into depth. Large movement of rare. The pack is divided into age categories. Zooplankter.
Herring has — 2 types: large — approximately 33 cm( usually 20-28 centimeters — )and also tiny — to 18 cm( typically 12-13 centimeters) in length. Common in the White sea as well as in the coastal area of the Barents sea. Big, supposed’Ivanovo herring’, generates in June, portion, at midsts approximately 5 m; tiny, so-called’Egor herring’, lays eggs in the spring under the ice, near the coast and also goes away after spawning at sea. Fry as well as feeds upon planktonic crustaceans living in the upper layers of water. In September, enters into deepness, where feeding strength is minimized.
The Czech-Pechora herring — — body length as much as 30 centimeters, generally 18-20 cm Lives in the southeastern component of the Barents sea and also in the southern component of the Kara sea as well as in the Mezen Bay and also the Gulf of Ob. Spawning occurs from might to mid-July in the briny areas of the seaside zone with midsts to 3.5 m. lays Eggs on rough or sandy dirt. Spawn goes with foraging in the open sea. Fry feed upon zooplanktons.
For the genus of Ponto-Caspian herrings — — Caspialosa Berg. — — identified by the visibility of a Central recess in the top jaw and also the wing-like ranges at the base of the caudal fin.
Shad bigeye. Mouth large, end. Well-developed teeth. The eyes are large. Gill endurances (25-40) short, rugged and also sparse. Behind the Gill cover on each side there are 2 dark spots on the sides of places no. Size to 35 cm, generally 15-27 cm Lives in the Northern part of the Caspian sea. Spawns in sets, from April to may, at midsts of from 1 to 6 m, on silt, sedimentary rock and also sand. Zooplankton-phage and also killer. Winters in southerly Caspian sea.
The Caspian shad. The body high. On the jaws the teeth are poorly developed. There are countless long as well as slim Gill rakers. There can be up to 170. For the Gill covers in dark discolor. Spawns in may-June at depths to 15 m in the Northern part of the Caspian sea. The winter is spent in the southern waters of the sea. Is available in the Volga Delta. It eats zooplankton. Length up to 30 centimeters, generally 17-23 cm
Azov shad. Gill endurances are long, thin (61 — — 85). Reaches length of 21 centimeters, normally 15 cm Rests in the Eastern waters of the Black and Azov seas. Migratory fish. Generating run begins in late February. Since that time, relocating groups to the lower reaches of the put on and also Kuban tidewaters, where in April-may generate. Then till September plumps in the sea of Azov. Punktorah. It wintertimes in the Black sea.
Azov, the Kerch herring. Gill rakers 35-50, they are frequent, thin, straight. Body low, lengthened. Rotate gray-green-blue. For the Gill covers in dark stain. Body length about 30 cm Lives in the Black and also Azov seas. It generates from April to early June in the bays and estuaries of the Azov sea, in the estuary part of the river wear. Fry eat zooplanktons. It wintertimes in the Black sea. Move with the Kerch Strait in the sea of Azov starts in March. Back to the Black sea remains in August-December.
Black sea herring, hare. Well-developed teeth. Gill rakers usually 55. Body low, lengthened. Head as well as back turquoise, flanks silvery with a pink tint. There are sunken places on both sides behind the Gill covers. Forms 2 types: a large (to 30 centimeters) and little (to 20 cm). Widespread in the Black and also Azov seas. Generating from April to August strolls into the Danube, Dniester, insect, Dnieper, don. Consumes whitebait as well as shellfishes. It wintertimes in the Black sea. The beginning of a relocate early April (through the Kerch Strait). The first is a big herring, then penalty. For wintering in the Black sea leave backwards order — — initially the little, after that huge herring. The course ends in early December.
The Volga herring. Teeth are badly created. Gill rakers 100 — — 150, they are thin as well as lengthy. Back almost black or dark purple. Body length as much as 35 centimeters Lives in the Caspian sea basin. Migratory fish. Generating (may-August) is the Volga. Feed upon crustaceans and also fish. The winter is invested in the southern Caspian sea.
Marine education fish, living generally in the surface layers of water; in the winter as well as for spawning falls in the bottom horizons, but no much deeper than 200-300 m. the Usual instance of favorable temperature levels and also high salinities, yet in some areas substantial transfers as well as desalination; as well as periodically enters into the mouth of the rivers; some of the southern populations (Kattegat, Sund, previously Zuiderzee) generate when salinity 8-22%o done in the time as well as problems of generating in different types, there are considerable distinctions: some southerly populaces, for example, the Danish Straits, in addition to herring from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland as well as North. America generate near the coastline at a depth of 40-50 m, while the Bank of herring in the North sea, and also Murmansk shape, generate at midsts to 200 m. At the time of spawning differentiate springtime, wintertime, summertime as well as fall herrings; of these the most various spring as well as fall herring.
Spawning grounds of herring in Murmansk located near the Lofoten Islands, mainly from Sulphur to Resta, to a much lower extent and also in more Northern locations (Finnmark). Spawning in March-April. Relish vymatyvayutsya on sandy or gravel soil at deepness (50) 130-225 m at a temperature of concerning 4-7 ° C as well as salinity 34-35% o. Fecundity of Atlantic herring ranges from 10 to 100 thousand eggs, Murmansk is 15-23 thousand eggs with a size of 1.6-2.1 mm. 2-3 weeks after spawning, hatch larvae with a Length of 5-8 mm, which after a week start to passively pelagic way of life and also are carried far by the currents, getting to o the Bear and the shores of Murman. By August-September, gets to a length of 4-6 centimeters, these masses come close to the coast, frequently fulfilled near the river mouths.
Formed fingerlings bigger than 6-7 cm (supposed « sprat »)actively lead a pelagic way of life, widely resolving mostly all Barentsevo sea. Youthful herring (as much as 2-3 years — «— «»tiny herring » «, 3-4 years old»« fat herring »)occasionally approaches the coast — «— « sprat » as well as small herring mostly in summer season, fat herring in the wintertime. Developing herring gradually moving right into South-Western locations of the Barents sea, approaching the generating grounds near the Lofoten Islands. Significant re-spawning herring (ages 9-10 years or more) depart after spawning to the far North, getting to the West shore of Spitsbergen (« North hall»»).
The maturation of the Murmansk herring reaches the ground in 5 to 6 years of age. On its further development can be judged by the analyses of a huge (currently arestovala) of herring from the Svalbard area (Marty, 1941): 7 +28.8 centimeters, 9 +30.2 cm, 11 + 31.4 centimeters, 13 +32.2 centimeters life expectancy of 15-20 years.
The primary food things of herring Barents sea offer Euphausiidae as well as Calanus finmarchicus. The boldovsky (1941) located the adhering to scheme of seasonal modification in feeding strength of the Murmansk herring. After a very weak winter months feeding duration, from March to April, the feeding strength of herring rises (mostly as a result of the Euphausiidae), but the resumption of development and raised fat starts later, from completion of may. One of the most extensive feeding period takes place in June — — July (Calanus), then fall (August-October) progressively deteriorated (the period of extra feeding); during this period the tummies of herring dominated by Euphausiidae, and in some cases additionally the fish fry (cod, sand eels, indigenous fish), Limacina, and so on, the Greatest development occurs during the summer season feeding and fall, the greatest fat content achieved in August-September.
Generating Norwegian herring happens in the South-Western shore of Norway in February-April, the larvae along the Norwegian coastline relate the present to the Finnmark (smaasild Norwegians), but reaching 2-3 years old actively migrate South back (fetsild). With the approach of adolescence, the assumptions of Norwegian authors, component of the herring departs for the ocean blue, passing the supposed oceanic phase (found by the ranges reading). Proper to the coastline of Norway for generating big herring (storsild, vaarsild) has an age of 4-7 years.
In the Barents sea Norwegian herring has a limited circulation, apparently, going just in the South-Western part at a young age.
Financial value. One of the most vital industrial fish in the North Atlantic sea, occupying 2nd place in globe fisheries (15-16 million kg). The best variety of herring caught in the North sea (as much as 9-10 million kg.), off the coast of Norway and Iceland. In the Barents sea our catches in great years reach 1 million TS.