Trout is a regular agent of the salmon household, which includes anadromous and also freshwater fish. The closest ««» relative » loved ones are sea trout, Lenka, Pacific salmon and also Pacific trout. The checkpoint is called brownish trout, freshwater(property)— the trout.
Trout exist in nature in numerous types that differ from each various other in presence, ecology and look. Taxonomy currently, there are 6 subspecies, of which the waters of Russia and also the previous Soviet Union is residence to 5: 4 death as well as 1 lake. Another subspecies lives in the rivers of the Aral sea container and also the last in the waters of the Mediterranean sea, in the sea comes out.
To confuse the problem of systematics and also kinship of lots of « comgeorgia-trout » forms the critical function played by the acclimatization and breeding of brownish trout in fabricated problems. Earlier trout and trout considered as different groups of fish. For example, for a long period of time researchers held the point of view of Linnaeus, according to which brook trout and brownish trout were the special kinds.
The falsity of this declaration mentioned the complying with truth: in New Zealand for acclimatization in the local rivers was brought to the trout. After a while some obtain the trout slipped into the reduced reaches of the rivers and also the sea as well as turned into a checkpoint trout!
At the present time can be considered a tried and tested truth the sensation of turning a passing trout, creek and lake trout at each other! The European creek trout, sometimes also getting on 300-700 kilometres. down the river, leaving in estuarine area of the Mediterranean and also Adriatic seas, as if making attempts to turn into the checkpoint kind. With the release of young foreleg from hatcheries in the Baltic sea acclimatizate quickly obtain a silvery shade and also return to spawn in the guise of a passing trout.
This extremely plastic (adjustable), the fish body color, its form, and also biological signs of various water bodies of the European-Asian part of the continent vary significantly. There are instances of practically black and also very light, brief, thick and elongated.
Unlike the salmon the salmon the number of scales in a transverse row from the end of the adipose fin to the side line 15-18, 105-132 lateral line scales, Gill rakers 13 to 18, there is ugarcovici. The smallest body elevation (height of caudal peduncle) not greater than two times in length of back peduncle. Body over and listed below side line covered with numerous black spots that have a light halo. On the sides of the body there are red places. In rivers the colouring is brownish on the back with a silvery shine on the sides. In huge lakes and estuaries, trout has a leading silver color.
The size of the fish differ relying on habitat conditions in streams in property trout (trout) can be no more than 25 centimeters in big lakes up to 1 m, weight approximately 8-13 kg. Migratory brownish trout are larger, as much as 1.4 m.
Baltic trout generally has a size of 30-70 centimeters and also a weight of 1-5 kg, although there is proof of capturing trout, which evaluated 23.6 per kg. Ciscaucasian trout are a lot smaller sized — — 1.9 to 7 kg. Caspian brownish trout — — the giant amongst salmon having a mass of 51 kg, today it does not exceed 12-13 kg. As a result of the significant dimension and also mass, and also in spite of the wonderful resemblance with salmon, taxonomists took into consideration a kind of Caspian trout is a subspecies of salmon. Only lately (1980s) developed for the particular framework of the embryo in the egg and the chromosome number that is much changed in the evolution of the type of trout.
The optimum understood age for anadromous trout also — — 19 years, for lake trout is 20 years old. The entryway and also freshwater species widely inhabits the rivers of Northern Eurasia and lakes with chilly water. Juveniles feed on small shellfishes as well as insect larvae in the river as well as typically spends 3-4 years (often extra). In the sea lives 2-3 years, yet occasionally comes back after a year. At sea, preys on fish and also large shellfishes. Living kinds in the lake (trout) is likewise commonly switch to an aggressive lifestyle.
According to the way of living of a trout describes the fish with a wide variety of food. She that preys, however do not forget about the food flying pests, usually in the tummies of brown trout discover a large number of aquatic invertebrates. Looking for the prey the fish loitering in the water column, adhering to the upper layers of the water.
Usually trout forms different type of forms. In lake Ohrid, situated on the border of Macedonia and Albania, there are 2 kinds of brownish trout: a big (up to 10 kg), aggressive trout, previously identified as a different species — — the staircase as well as the tiny silvery fish that feed on plankton, so it is unlike the relative, the killer that it had to be a separate genus with one species — — Belize. A comparable pattern is observed in Dagestan lake Asanam inhabited by two various forms of the same species — — non-predatory and predatory. In General, the trout is a fish pass, generating in the rivers. The process of generating brownish trout resembles that in salmon.
Depending upon the area, distribution, timing of generating differ from September to February. Spawning occurs in shallow rapids and river sections, relish or vymatyvayutsya on the rocks and also rugged sand, or hidden in pits. The ordinary fecundity of trout from 7 to 12 thousand eggs, delicacy, orange, big, gets to 5-6 mm. in diameter. Generating premises lie in the top reaches of rivers and also in the center reaches. Spawning throughout life, from 4 to 11 times. Hatching out of larvae happens in 6-8 weeks.
The homing and breeding tufts have brownish trout less industrialized than in salmon. Like salmon, trout concerns spawn with different condition, sexual items as well as, relying on this, it generates, or in the year of entrance, or the year after. It is thought that where there is a checkpoint and residential kinds of trout, they compose one flock spawning together. In passing trout populace is controlled by women, a lack of males kompensiruet with the living kinds of the char, where individuals « male sex » stay in the majority.
One more difference trout from salmon during generating trout does not quit consuming. Feeding as well as growth of fry of trout occurs in river problems. Fry it feeds in the river, from one to seven years, and after that, upon getting to a size of 20 centimeters, is sinking into the sea.
In Russia lives in the containers of the Barents, White, Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Many on the Kola Peninsula as well as in Karelia. In the Neva river is very uncommon, remains in the Narova, Luga, Gulf of Finland. In the white sea and Barents sea shore mosts likely to Czech lips, but in the Mezen and also Pechora. View acclimatized in numerous nations, including in the Americas.
In Central as well as North America of trout was not, however her look in American waters happened many thanks to the efforts of male. This fish was efficiently held on naturalization and also settled down, and in the procedure of growth of rivers and also lakes of America, there was such a range of types of trout, which in the XIX-th — — early XX-th century American taxonomists have explained greater than 30, of which presently just acknowledges two independent.
Prized possession industrial types. The item of sporting activity angling and also fish farming. All subspecies of trout has actually dramatically decreased their numbers listed in the Red data publication of Russian Federation 2001.