The house Sparrow is the most numerous bird of the majority of Russian cities, which continues to expand its range, following the man farther and farther to the North and East. This Sparrow about 16.5 cm in length, weighing up to 32.5 g, solid build, with short and thick at the base of “granivorous” beak.
Males and females are colored differently.The male has the crown and uppertail are grey, back and upper wings are brown with black longitudinal spots on the wing a bright white horizontal stripe, throat and craw are black. Especially the contrast they are in the spring. Females are painted in brownish-gray tone, and on the back they have darker longitudinal stripes.
Nests of these sparrows are satisfied in the various crevices and niches of buildings, in drain pipes, under the roofs of low buildings. Gladly take posted for other birds, birdhouses and nests located in the city of swallows. In the warm spring start nesting very early. After a noisy fights in thaw days, sometimes already in late February, the birds begin to drag inside the selected for housing places building material.
In the construction involved both male and female. In the case are straw, hemp, various plant fibers, sometimes even scraps of paper. The tray is lined with feathers and hair. It turns out the big round building with a lateral entrance-hole. Socket size often depends on the size occupied by the nest cavity. The average diameter of the nest 11-13 cm, height 25, the nesting chamber is 9.5×9.5 percent, the diameter of the hole of 4.5-5 cm during the years from house sparrows can have up to 3 broods. In different nests eggs of first clutches appear in different terms, since the second half of April to the end of the first decade of may.
The clutch is usually 4-6 eggs, each the size of about 22 and 32×16,34 mm and a weight of 2.83 g. Colouring eggs appears to be highly variable. Moscow viewed me eggs of sparrows were often as much covered with brown-grey streaks that absolutely could not see the main background, and they appeared to be marble. Eggs from other locations were of a whitish color, and on them were scattered dark spots of different density.
Incubation begins after the laying of the laying female eggs. Incubated by both partners, regularly replacing each other. The Chicks hatch after 13 days. The shells from their nests after hatching of eggs, as do many songbirds, sparrows, apparently, can not stand, otherwise she would very often catch the eye. In rural areas the birds feed the nestlings insects in the city – seeds of cereals. In the nest puhovichki guests staying 2 weeks. The first fledglings, fluttering its wings and begging for food from parents can be observed from the second half of may.
Paw prints house Sparrow and its droppings
Paw prints Sparrow and the search is not necessary. Look at galloping on a wet track or snow Sparrow, come closer and see what he has left traces. The shape of the imprint typical of the tracks of birds who spend long hours on the branches of trees. The lateral toes are only slightly splayed, the whole print is slightly arched to the middle to the outside. The imprint size of 3.3×1.4 cm. Manner of moving on the ground at the Sparrow, too, as the arboreal, not terrestrial birds. He’s not walking but jumping short springy jumps. Feet this holds not at the same level, and slightly oblique, one foot slightly ahead of the other.
Feed the sparrows in cities and towns mostly in the trash, picking up crumbs of bread and other garbage. But try to find more natural food – seeds of cultivated cereals and wild herbs, so they often gather near grain elevators, bakeries, close to the train stations. On the edges of the city are willing to track bird pecking seeds, buckwheat and other grasses.
In a rural location and fly to grain fields and trying to peck of ears of ripening grain. However, more severe house Sparrow less suited to this than, for example, of the field, so as hardly hold the stems of cereals. During the ripening cherries sparrows obkladyvajut ripe fruit and those soon fade and wither. They also damage fruit cherries and grapes, pick out sunflower seeds and millet. In addition to plant foods, the sparrows catch invertebrates, small beetles, butterflies and their caterpillars.
Finding a large caterpillar, which can not immediately swallow, Sparrow crumples her long beak, squeezing, as from a tube, the inside and pecking away at them. Then take the rest or leave in place food half-empty skin. Larger beetles bite it too long, eating them piece by piece. And often leaves the torn off and damaged the elytra and legs.
Droppings of a Sparrow in the prevalence of food grain feed is quite dry and short, thin “sausages”.