For independent breeding chickens, you can purchase industrial device for incubation. But also have the opportunity to collect an incubator with your own hands at home.
A homemade unit will cost much cheaper, and you can choose the size by the number of eggs. In such a device, it is possible to automate the change of temperature and to set a regular egg turning trays.
Housing is the basic element of a homemade incubator. It keeps heat inside and prevents sharp jumps in the temperature of the eggs. Changes in temperature regime can negatively affect the health of future chickens.
As housing for the incubator will fit the following:
- the body of the old refrigerator.
For the placement of the eggs used trays made of plastic or wood with mesh or slatted. Automatic trays, equipped with motors, can produce egg turning, preset timer time. The displacement of the eggs to the side to prevent uneven heating of the surface.
With incandescent lamps, homemade incubator creates the need for development of cubs fever. To choose the power lamp affects the size of the housing of the incubator, it can vary in the range of 25 to 1000 watts. W. To monitor the temperature level in the device helps the thermometer or the thermostat is of electronic type with the sensor.
The air in the incubator must be continuously circulated, it is provided that forced or natural ventilation. For small devices will be sufficient holes at the base and at the cover surface. Large structures made from the body of the refrigerator, you need a special fan located at the top and the bottom. Ventilation will allow air to stagnate, and the heat is evenly distributed in the device.
For continuous incubation process it is necessary to do the optimal number of trays. The gap between the trays and the distance of the filament lamp shall be not less than 15 cm From the walls to the trays need to leave a gap of 4-5 cm Diameter ventilation holes may be 12 to 20 mm.
Before placing eggs in the incubator, you need to check the fans and the uniformity of heating of the device. After the optimal heating temperature in the corners of the apparatus should not differ by more than 0.5 degrees. The air flow from the fans should be aimed at the lamp and not on the trays with eggs.
Incubator Styrofoam with your hands
The advantages of polystyrene are its affordable price, high-quality insulation, low weight. Because of this, it is often used for the manufacture of incubators.
To work you need the following components:
- two sheets of Styrofoam having a thickness of 50 mm and dimensions of 100 x 100 cm;
- four incandescent bulbs with cartridges, power of 25 W;
- glue, tape or adhesive tape;
- one tray of water;
- the egg-tray;
- fan (can use computer cooler).
Before you make an incubator at home, you must prepare drawings with the exact measurements.
Assembly includes the following steps:
- For the preparation of the side walls, the foam sheet should be divided into four equal squares.
- The surface of the second sheet is divided in half. One of the resulting parts must be cut into rectangles with parameters 50×40 cm and 50*60 cm. the Smaller part will be the bottom of the incubator, and large – cap.
- On the lid is cut out the viewing window with the settings 13×13 cm It will be covered with a transparent plastic or glass and provide ventilation in the device.
- First assembled and glued to the frame of the side walls. After the glue dries, attach the bottom. For this you need to spread the edges of the sheet with glue and insert it into the frame.
- To increase rigidity, it is necessary to paste over with duct tape. The first strip of tape overlap on the bottom with a little overlap on the surface of the walls. Then tightly pasted to the wall.
- Even distribution of heat and circulation of air masses are provided by means of two bars located under the bottom of the pan. They are also made of foam, height 6 cm and width 4 cm Bars are mounted on adhesive along the walls of the bottom, with a length of 50 cm.
- 1 cm above bottom, on short walls, bore 3 holes for ventilation, with equal intervals and a diameter of about 12 cm Holes will be difficult to cut with a knife, so it’s best to use a soldering iron.
- For a tight fit the cover to the housing at its edge to attach the blocks of polystyrene foam, 2×2 cm From the edge of the paper to the surface of the bar must be a gap of 5 cm in Such an arrangement will allow the cap to go into the interior of the incubator and tightly joined together with walls.
- At the top of the box is mesh, attached to her tube cartridges.
- On the surface of the cover mounted thermostat and its sensor is lowered inside the incubator at a distance of 1 cm from the eggs. The hole for the sensor can be pierced with a sharp awl.
- The bottom tray is installed, the distance from the wall at 4-5 cm in Such an arrangement is necessary for the ventilation device.
- The fans are not necessary if the incubator has a small size. In the case of installation, the airflow should be directed at the bulb, not the carton of eggs.
For best heat retention, you can paste over the inner surface of the incubator insulating foil.
The incubator with their hands out of the refrigerator body
The principle of the incubator is largely similar to the operation of the refrigerator. With the option to use convenient and high-quality self-made device from the housing of the refrigerating appliance. The material of the walls of the refrigerator keeps heat well, holds a large number of eggs, trays which can be conveniently placed on the shelves.
Humidity level will be supported by a special system, located on the bottom of the device. Before the modification of the hull, it is necessary to remove the built-in equipment, and freezer.
To make an incubator for eggs with their hands out of the old refrigerator, you will need the following components:
- the body of the refrigerator;
- stock of metal or chain with a sprocket;
- bulbs power 220 W;
- the actuator that turns the eggs.
Requirements for a homemade incubator
The period of hatching usually lasts about 20 days. The humidity inside the incubator at this time should be kept within 40-60%. After the release of the Chicks from the eggs, it should be raised to 80%. At the stage of selection of young animals, the humidity is reduced to the original figure.
For the proper development of the eggs is also important temperature. Temperature requirements may vary for certain kinds of eggs. Table 1 shows the necessary conditions.
Installation of ventilation system
Ventilation regulates the ratio of temperature and humidity in the incubator. Her speed should be an average of 5 m/s. In the body of the refrigerator need to drill one hole top and bottom, with a diameter of 30 mm. they are inserted metal or plastic tube of appropriate size. The use of tubes avoids the interaction of the air with glass wool located inside of the walls. The level of ventilation is regulated by a complete or partial closing of the holes.
Six days after the start of incubation, the embryos require a flow of air from the outside. By the third week, the egg absorbs a day to 2 liters of air. Before leaving the egg, the chick consumes about 8 liters of air masses.
There are two types of ventilation systems:
- constant, which provides continuous air circulation, exchange and distribution of heat;
- periodic, activated once a day to replace the air in the incubator.
Ventilation of any type does not preclude the installation of a device for turning eggs. The use of automatic revolution allows to avoid adhesion of embryo and the shell.
Constant ventilation systemplaced inside the incubator and exhausts the air through the holes. The output is a mixture of air flow and their passage through the heaters. Then the air masses descend and become saturated with moisture from the water containers. The incubator increases the temperature of the air, which then is transferred to the eggs. Having heat, the air tends to fan.
Constant ventilation is more difficult than a variable model. But her work allows simultaneously to produce the ventilation, heating and moisture inside the incubator.
Periodic ventilation system works on a different principle. First, the shutdown of heating, then the fan is switched on. It updates the heated air and cools the trays with eggs. After 30 minutes, the fan switches off and comes in the action of the heating device.
The number of eggs in the incubator determines the power of the fan.
For the middle unit on 100-200 eggs, you will need a fan with the following characteristics:
- the diameter of the blades 10-45 cm;
- powered by 220 watts;
- performance 35-200 cu. m/hour.
For the fan there should be a filter that will protect the blades from dust, fluff and dirt.
Installation of heating elements
To increase the temperature in the incubator need to be four incandescent bulbs with power 25 Watts (can be replaced with two bulbs, a power of 40 Watts). The lamps are fixed uniformly over the area of the fridge, between the bottom and the lid. In the lower part should be place in a container of water, which will provide the humidification.
The selection of the thermostat
A quality thermostat is able to provide the optimum temperature in the incubator.
There are several types of such devices:
- the bimetallic strip which closes a circuit when the heating has reached the desired value;
- elektrokontaktor – mercury thermometer, equipped with electrode heating cut-off when reaching required temperature;
- barometric sensor to complete the circuit when the pressure exceeds the norm.
The automatic thermostat provides the convenience of working with an incubator and saves time on maintenance.
The collection mechanism to automatically flip the eggs
Standard frequency of turning eggs set of mechanisms is two times a day. According to some experts, the turning must be carried out in two times as often.
There are two types of coup eggs:
Device slant type periodically tilts at a certain angle tray of eggs. As a result of this move, the embryos inside the eggs change their location relative to the shell and heating elements.
Framework device for a coup pushes the eggs with the frame and provides rotation about its axis.
Automatic device for turning eggs is an engine that runs a stock, acting on the trays with eggs. To make an elementary mechanism to flip the eggs in the refrigerator case, is quite simple. For this you need to install the gearbox in the lower, inner part of the refrigerator. Trays are fixed on a wooden frame, tilted at an angle of 60 degrees to the side door and towards the wall. Fixing gear must be strong. The rod is attached at one end to the engine and the other to the opposite side of the tray. The engine uses the stock, which drives the tray in an inclined condition.
To synchronize hatching need to pick up eggs of the same size and maintain a uniform level of heating of the entire space of the incubator. Making a homemade incubator requires certain skills and abilities. If it is not possible to make an incubator at home or this process seems too complicated, you can always buy ready-made model or its components, for example, the mechanism of the coup eggs, trays, ventilation system.