In July, the Leningrad region can be found suillus, boletus, orange-cap boletus, oyster mushroom, Morel, honey agaric, chanterelle, white mushroom, puffball, boletus. Mushrooms have quite a lot – and in the glades and under the trees. In addition to the mushrooms already found strawberries and blueberries.
Morels grow in the spring in woods, parks, gardens. In large quantities they can be found on the third and sometimes the fourth year after a forest fire. Old fires can regularly grow each year, although in smaller quantities. It is believed, though not proven, that morels can form mycorrhiza with certain types of trees (especially ash).
Used in boiled and fried (after otwarci).
As for morels, despite the lack of reliable data concerning their toxicity (in contrast to the toxicity of raw morels are), pre cooking (boiling or drying) is recommended for these fungi, as in Russia, the mushroom is often confused lines with morels, these mushrooms collected in the same container (while gyromitrin bat) and sell on the market of lines under the guise of “morels”. In this regard, as gyromitra, Morel is also considered sanitary doctors of Russia as a “conditionally edible mushroom”.
Suillus is a genus of fungi of the family of the tubular Baletowa (lat. Boletaceae). It got its name because of the oily, slippery to touch hats. The characteristics that distinguish most types of oil from other boletaceae, is sticky slimy, easily removable peel the cap and the ring, the remaining from private cover.
Hat from convex to flat in shape, smooth, usually sticky or slimy, with an easily removable skin. It is possible to have private cover.
The gimenofor easily separated from the cap; adnate, or downward on the stem, yellow or white.
Stem solid, smooth or granular, sometimes with a ring – the remnants of private cover.
The flesh is whitish or yellowish colour on the cut can change the color to blue or red.
Spore powder in various shades of yellow.
A rather large mushroom. A hat with a diameter of 5-15 (30) cm, fleshy, solid, roundish, with a thin edge; form is earlike recomenaria or almost round. The young mushroom cap is convex, with wrapped edge, later flat or shirokoformatnaya with a wavy or lobed margin. The hat surface is smooth, glossy, often undulate. When growing in wet conditions the pileus is often covered with filamentous bloom. The color of the cap is changeable, varying from dark gray or brownish in young mushrooms to ash-gray with violet shade from Mature mushrooms, and over time vizueta to whitish, grayish or yellowish.
The stem is short (sometimes almost invisible), dense, solid, eccentric or lateral, cylindrical, tapering to the base, often curved, 2-5 cm long and 0.8-3 cm thick. The surface of legs are white, smooth; at the base brownish and slightly felted. Mushrooms from old stem becomes very hard.
Edible mushroom. In food use young mushrooms (up to 7-10 cm) after removal of rigid legs, because the older mushrooms become too hard
Fruit body closed structure, round, pear-shaped, often with a pronounced false leg, small or medium size. A sterile cloth about the legs tightly fused with the top part bearing the Gleba. Actirity covered with spinous outgrowths that age can fall off. After the spores Mature fruiting body opens a small hole at the top.
Hat different color – from white to dark gray and almost black, the bottom and the first (young mushroom) white, older – grayish-brownish. In damp places often boletus swamp, with white or whitish surface of the cap.
Leg below and slightly thickened, white, with longitudinal white or dark scales.
The flesh is white, the color of the fracture is not changed. In a swampy area is found poised boletus (Leccinum oxydabile), poised to break flesh.
Edible, used in food fried, boiled and pickled, dried for harvesting
Orange-cap boletus (osinovik krasnogolovik) is the common name for several species of fungi of the genus Leccinum (lat. Leccinum). Different orange-red (sometimes white) cap and a blue discoloration of the flesh of the fungus on the cut. From the birch also are usually heavier, “chunky” stem and firm flesh of the cap.
Since all boletus are edible and almost the same nutritional qualities, the pickers do not always distinguish between their types. Some species are distributed mainly in the zone of deciduous and mixed forests of Eurasia, the other in North America.
The name “boletus” is associated not only with characteristic place of habitat of these fungi, but the color of hats reminiscent of the autumn color of the aspen leaves.
A hat with a diameter of 3-6 cm, at first convex, with aging of the fungus becomes flat, with a pronounced broad tubercle. In rainy weather, translucent, brown, dry – brushed, honey-yellow; often lighter in the middle and darker around the edges. The edges of the cap with noticeable grooves in wet weather around the tubercle, there are concentric zones and the darker field. The skin is smooth, slimy.
Flesh thin, watery, pale yellow-brown, stem darker, with a mild flavor and a pleasant smell of fresh wood.
Plate width 0.4-0.6 cm, adnate or slightly downward, relatively frequent, at first light brown, then dark brown.
Leg height 7 cm, diameter 0,4-1 cm, thick; upper part lighter than the cap, smooth, below the ring appear small dark scales.
Edible mushroom, suitable for fresh consumption and for pickling. In many countries, is grown on an industrial scale.
Well-known edible mushroom, highly prized, is suitable for use in any form. Chanterelles are well stored and transported. Thanks to the almost complete absence of worms chanterelles are considered to be kosher. The sour taste of raw flesh disappears when boiling.
Fruiting bodies in the form similar to slapanice, but the cap and stem are a single unit, without the expressed boundaries; color – from light yellow to orange-yellow.
Hat diameter 2-12 cm, often with a wavy edge or irregular, concave-spreading, convex then depressed, flat, with revolute margins and depressed in the centre, funnel-shaped mushrooms to Mature. The hat surface is smooth matte. Peel difficult to separate from the pulp cap.
The pulp is densely fleshy, fibrous in the stem, yellow at the edges and whitish in the middle of the fruit body, with a sour taste and a mild odor of dried fruit or roots. When pressed, slightly blushing.
Leg fused with a hat and one with her color or paler, solid, dense, smooth, downward-tapering, with a thickness of 1 to 3 cm and a length of from 4 to 7 cm.
The gimenofor folded (pseudoplasticity), consists of undulating, often highly branched folds, strongly descending leg. The gimenofor can also be gelcoated, grubacic; veins thick, rare (less than 10 PCs/cm) is low, like folds, fork or no fork-branched, far nizbegajushchie on foot (refers to aphyllophorales mushrooms).
Spore powder is light yellow in color, the spores are ellipsoidal, 8,5 × 5 µm.
A distinctive feature of the chanterelle is common is the almost complete absence in pulp of wormholes and insect larvae. In the debate, and the flesh of the chanterelle common feature of chinamans, destructive acting on arthropods and worms of all types. Hinomannoza envelops the egg capsules of parasites, dissolves them and destroys the contents.
The cap of a Mature mushroom with a diameter of 7-30 cm (sometimes 50 cm), convex, from the old mushrooms PLANO-convex, rarely prostrate. The surface is smooth or wrinkled, in dry weather, can crack, naked, can be fine-felt (especially at the edge), rarely fibrous-scaly. In wet weather the surface is slightly slimy, in dry matte or shiny. The color of the skin, from red-brown to almost white, with age turns dark, it can also be lemon yellow, orange, purple shades are often uneven coloration, pale edges, sometimes with a narrow pure white or a yellowish rim. The skin is adherent, is not separated from the pulp.
The flesh is strong, juicy-fleshy, fibrous old specimens, white in the young mushroom, yellow with age, does not change color after cutting (very rarely observed weak change of color to pink or blue) under a dark-colored skin may be a layer of brown or red-brown shade. The taste is soft, slightly marked, the smell of raw flesh weakly visible, strong pleasant mushroom odor when cooking and especially when drying.
Stem 8-25 cm tall (usually up to 12) and up to 7 cm thick (rarely 10 or more), a massive, barrel-shaped or clavate with age, in the sky, and may be cylindrical, expanded or narrowed in the middle, the base often remains thickened. Surface whitish, brownish, sometimes reddish, can have the same color as the hat, but lighter. Covered with a mesh of white or lighter streaks. The mesh is usually in the upper part of the leg, but it may come down to the ground, much more rarely it is absent or weakly expressed.
The tubular layer with a deep notch near the legs, easily separated from the pulp cap, a bright, young mushrooms white, later yellow, and then becomes olive-green, very rare at a young age, sometimes with a pinkish-red shade. Tube 1-4 cm long, pore small, rounded.
The remnants of the covers are missing.
Spore powder is olive-brown. Spores fusiform, medium size – 15,5 × 5,5 µm, the size can be quite vary even in one and the same sample (11-17×4-5. 5 µm), occasionally much elongated, up to 22 microns, but the width is more than usual.
Used fresh (boiled and fried), dried and pickled forms. When drying the mushrooms darken and acquire a special smell. In the form of mushroom powder (dried and ground) is used for the filling of different dishes. In Italy it is used raw in salads, seasoned with oil, spices, lemon juice with the addition of Parmesan cheese. Sauces of white fungus well suited to rice and meat dishes.
The flesh is whitish, yellowish or reddish in many species turning blue when cut.
The gimenofor tubular, descending on the stem, rarely adnate; yellow, greenish-yellow or red. The pore tubules is wide enough.
Stem smooth or wrinkled. Covers (Volvo and ring) is missing.
Spore powder of different shades of brown.