Viral infectious peritonitis is a dangerous disease that can cause irreparable harm to the health of cats, perhaps even fatal outcomes. Peritonitis-inflammation of protective membrane covering internal organs the abdominal cavity.
The disease is accompanied by inflammation that is accompanied by acute and subacute course.
The causative agent of peritonitis is considered to be the coronavirus FIPY, which is popularly referred to as the virus of viral peritonitis in cats. This virus was betrayed to wide publicity a few decades ago, and today this diagnosis is from the mouth of the vets sounds more and more often. This disease is not yet fully understood, so the 100% information about it is not have even qualified.
The symptoms of viral and infectious peritonitis in cats
Symptoms of the disease considered to be symptoms of ailments:
- complete lack of appetite;
- apathy, depression;
- reduction of body weight;
- stop growth;
- fluctuation of temperature;
- shortness of breath due to the accumulation of fluid in chest (pleural effusion);
- abnormal heart rhythm;
Symptoms of feline infectious peritonitis should be considered:
- rapid weight loss;
- white coating on the eyes and eyelids;
- mood swings;
- paralysis of the limbs;
- violation of the kidneys and liver;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- stop growth;
- depressing the appearance of hair;
Characteristics and types of the disease
As you know, viral peritonitis caused by a coronavirus. Some members of the cat have antibodies that can prevent the disease. According to statistics, today 10% of cats are capable of Contracting infectious form of peritonitis. Experts believe that infectious peritonitis – a kind of mutation in the intestinal form of coronavirus, which further leads to the development of peritonitis.
Virus peritonitis of cats and a few changes in the immune system , only worsens the overall picture. Instead of having to stop the virus, antibodies to the contrary spread infection throughout the body.
It is considered that the disease is of two types: wet peritonitis and dry. In wet ( exudative) peritonitis in an animal there is fluid in the abdominal and chest areas, or ascites. When dry, the disease affects the organs of vision cat develops conjunctivitis, retina and iris begin to inflame, appear purulent discharge.
The modes and sources of infection
Especially dangerous for health and life, the disease enters the body in several ways:
- airborne ways.
Immediately after contact with a healthy animal is already infected, which has not yet appeared the first symptoms of the disease.
The virus is extremely resistant to external stimuli, so outside of a living organism is able to stay up to 30 days.
The animal can become infected through contact with the body contamination of food. It’s also been suggested that feline infectious peritonitis can develop in a pregnant individual and be transmitted to the unborn kittens, ie from an infected mother to the kitten still in the womb.
If the virus enters the body of a cat through the oral or nasal cavity, it accumulates primarily in tissues of the pharynx or respiratory tract. Almost 90% of infection in this way are asymptomatic, to identify the disease extremely difficult. The cat appears severe diarrhea as a symptom, and perhaps because of this, the animal may get rid of the coronavirus, and thus the need for further treatment is eliminated.
Often found epidemiological outbreaks, ie cats, always kept the groups most at risk. According to statistics, more than 80% of infected cats at cat shows, pedigree cats are also at risk of infection (more than 54 %).
Most often infectious peritonitis cats sick animals aged either up to 3 years, or individuals who have more than 10 years of living in the world.
Basically, viral peritonitis settles cells of the small intestine and tonsils. Over time, the virus spreads throughout the body, affecting the immune system, after which there is a characteristic symptoms of feline infectious peritonitis. This disease is quite rare, but, nevertheless, it is one of the most dangerous diseases that occur in cats.
Prevention of peritonitis in cats
At the present time in the world there is no single vaccine capable of preventing peritonitis. This vaccine was invented in America, is called Рrimuсell FIP. Russian experts do not advise its use, there is concern that the vaccine is not fully understood and may harm the animal.
Opinions about the vaccine were divided, some Russian vets believe that if you apply this medicine through the nose (intranasally), no risk to the health of felines does not exist.
The key methods of preventing peritonitis in cats is considered to be correct and comfortable maintenance of a family pet. Disinfection of the home and cats of the entire premises in General shall be carried out regularly, it is not recommended to have multiple cats in the same room, to carefully monitor the quality of feed, to isolate the pregnant cats from kittens and other animals.
Cleanup activities cats from parasites considered the least effective measure for the prevention of peritonitis in cats.
Important are also measures to strengthen the overall immune system of the cat or cat and prevent the emergence of stress situations
Diagnosis of peritonitis
The first thing the vet is required to collect the anamnesis. The owner of the cat or the cat questions on the basis of the responses to the vet restores picture.
Questions can be as follows:
- A detailed description of the conditions of detention of the animal;
- Sneezed the cat in the last days, have you noticed any bowel disorders;
- Have you encountered any stressful situation;
- Was there a need for surgical intervention;
- Had there been any contact of a diseased animal with other individuals.
Then a thorough inspection of the animal. Palpation and measurement of temperature is required. You need to take effusion for analysis, preferably from the thoracic or abdominal cavity. The doctor is obliged to appoint a special blood tests, including a biopsy. Also, the veterinarian should prescribe ultrasound, x-ray, laparoscopy.
One of the most effective methods of diagnosis is considered to be the analysis of the ascitic fluid. It can be recovered from the abdominal cavity of the patient specimens by aspiration.
The treatment of peritonitis
The treatment of this disease practically does not give any result because it is still not developed, scientists are constantly trying to find a cure for this disease. The fact that the disease involves and affects almost all internal organs, the vastness of the lesion is very large.
Vets spend treatment method the input of antiviral drugs, for example, fosprenil and interstate, and remove exudate and injected into the abdominal cavity of some antimicrobial drugs based on iodine. But such treatment does not give any results. Unfortunately, most of the animals from the disease die. The chance of survival of those cats and cats that have undergone minimal attack of the virus, that is the area of infection of the internal organs is maximally small.