Perhaps the most widespread and one of the most numerous waders in the Northeast of Russia. With varying density, it inhabits all types of continental and island grassy tundras of the East Siberian, Chukchi and Bering seas, with the exception of the Commander Islands.
The territory of the region is inhabited by the Yakutian – S. alpina centralis (Buturlin) and the Far Eastern – C. alpina sakhalina (Viillot) subspecies of Dunlin, differing not only morphologically, but also in the distribution pattern in the nesting territories. The Yakut subspecies, distributed to the east to the delta of the Kolyma, inhabits the planking and coastal tundra of the Arctic type.
In the southern tundra is extremely small or absent. East of Kolyma, the Far Eastern subspecies nests, the landscape and biotope spectra of which are much broader. It is found almost everywhere in the open spaces of Chukotka, Kamchatka and Northern Okhotsk Sea in the presence of freshwater lakes.
Wetland tundra-like landscapes are widely distributed along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk; the southernmost documented nesting point is the Arman Lowland on the coast of the Tauisk Bay.
The size of the eggs of Dunlin on average is 35.6 × 24.7 mm. The average weight of unsweetened eggs is 11.8 g. Both sexes take part in caring for the offspring. Chicks are born on the 21-23 day of incubation; the average weight of newborn chicks is 6.9 g.
Young waders rise to the wing by the age of three weeks. The migratory flocks concentrate along the muddy shores of the lagoons and in the delta sections of the littoral, as well as at the tops of the sea bays.
In feeding places, migratory clusters often have thousands of birds. The Far Eastern sub-species of Dunlin spend the winter on the Pacific coast of North America.
Wintering of the Yakut subspecies is most likely in the countries of southern Asia.
The names of the species in Latin: Calidris alpina
Category: IV category
View status: Undefined status – I
Features of distribution and origin: Isolated and poorly studied population.
Kulik of medium size, the size of the starling. The main difference from other waders. entirely brownish black or with spots of the same color, the back of the chest and the front of the abdomen. Beak is relatively long, black, slightly bent downwards at the apical part, legs black, iris dark brown. The forehead, the sides of the head and the nape are whitish-gray with black longitudinal shading. Interblade area and humeral feathers are brownish-black with wide red rims.
The lateral upper covering tail feathers are white with a black pre-threaded pre-terminal strip. Chin and axillary feathers are white. Throat, neck in front and sides, goiter and front part of chest are whitish-gray with longitudinal black-brown strips. The tail feathers are gray, the middle pair is blackish brown. Young birds are reddish-gray, have on the belly a thickening of the dark pestrin, from the young Curlew Sandpipers are distinguished by a dark strip on the periendum [1, 2]. North-taiga populations have significant morphological differences, in some cases of subspecies rank, and differ from tundra with larger wing sizes [3, 4] and a redder back .
The taiga population nests on flat marshes, mainly from mid-June to mid-July. The nest is located in low grass or bushes.
Breeds circumpolarly in most of the tundra zone and on the coasts of the North and Baltic seas. An isolated nesting population was found in the north taiga marshes of the Ob-Purov interfluve [3, 4]. In the KhMAO territory it was taken into account in the nesting period , nesting was proved in the vicinity of the Haykegan station . There are grounds to assert that such tundra-like marshes are inhabited not by a relatively local population, but by a vast mosaic of nesting settlements of Dunlin and some other tundra bird species [6-8]. It hibernates in Africa, the Mediterranean, Central and East Asia.
Not studied. Perhaps the population is adversely affected by the deterioration of the quality of nesting habitats in connection with the development of oil deposits [3, 6].
Ecology and biology
The first birds arrive in the northern taiga in mid-May, a mass migration takes place at the end of May and ends in early June. The abundant lining of the nest consists of dry leaves and grass. Masonry usually consists of 4 eggs with ocher or light brown background and brown spots. The male and the female alternately incubate the masonry within 21-23 days. A few days after hatching, the female flies away, and the male leads the brood for about 2 weeks, until the chicks begin to fly. Feeds mainly larvae of Diptera, beetles, worms, mollusks and crustaceans. Like some other species of waders, the females are the first to leave for the winter, then the males and the last. young birds. Therefore, the departure from the nesting places and the autumn passage are stretched from the beginning of August to the middle of September
In the spring-summer period, most of the birds are represented by passing or non-breeding individuals of the tundra population. During nesting from mid-June to mid-July, it is common on flat-moored swamps (9 individuals / km2) [4, 6]. The total population of the taiga population is about 20 thousand individuals.