A very long time, bears in the Land was the most common of other species of animals. These animals were about a few dozen in its species. Now in nature, there are only 4 varieties of this group of mammals.
This includes the Ussuri, or Himalayan bear, which refers to an animal of prey type, representing the bear family.
Also, black bear has other names. For example, the Himalayan black, black and black Ussuri.
What is the appearance of a Himalayan bear represented?
These individuals are the smallest in the bear family. Body length of the animal is about 180 centimeters, and body weight adult equal to 150 kilograms.
External data animals are characterized by their name. The color of the fur of the bear is represented in black and the chest is white or light yellow stain that forms the shape of the corner. The fur of the bear is quite short, dense, silky and shines under the rays of the sun. In the area of the head the hair grows much thicker, so it doesn’t match the body in terms of size.
Thus, in accordance with the arboreal lifestyle of this breed bears, nature has endowed them with strong and long claws, through which the animal will be able without any problems to climb trees and cling to branches and tree bark. The shape of the claws bent in the direction of themselves they are quite sharp on the edge.
Where he used to live Asiatic black bears?
Residence of Asiatic black bears is considered to be the South-Eastern territory of the Asian part of the Eurasian continent. So, the Himalayan bear, I can easily be found on the territory of the Japanese Islands, Korea, China, Vietnam, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. In Russia the Asiatic black bear used to live in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krai.
Peculiarities in the behavior and lifestyle of the animal
Thus, in comparison with other species of bear, the Asiatic black bear is accustomed to living in family groups of a few animals each.
- Half of his life Ussuri bear prefers to spend in the crowns of tall trees. So, the top animal is able to find food, hide from the hot temperature, and also from the nasty insects and pests. But the Asiatic black bear is capable of good and quick to climb not only trees, it is also comfortable and cozy feel on the earth’s surface, as well as floats in water. The body bears has a special plasticity and flexibility.
- In winter the Asiatic black bear usually gets into some holes, which is located two meters from the ground. A good den for him to serve a large hole in a cliff or cave. Mostly bears prefer to lead a settled way of life, but can easily leave its territory, if food stays too little.
- Lifestyle Ussuri bears is rather to settled. As it is not subject to frequent Kochevnik. Area, which should be enough for the bear will be about 5-6 meters square. The boundaries of their possessions bear are usually not protected, but exposes the label, while leaving traces on the bark of trees. Their choice of residence was based primarily on the avoidance of foreign territory, than on respecting the boundaries of their.
- In the years when the crops vegetation and fruit is particularly high, specimens collected in the oak or the cedar, what happens in one area fed by several animals. At a time when the harvest of animals is not particularly happy, they leave the familiar areas and diverge in different directions for hundreds of kilometers to find new feeding places.
Than used to eat the Ussuri bear?
- Diet can also be called a distinctive feature of this species – it consists of 85% plant foods. Bear used to eat bulbs and root system of green plants, berries, nuts and acorns. Also the Ussuri bear, like all others, loves honey. While Asiatic black bear is a predatory animal, which sometimes can eat insects, grubs, amphibians and animals of larger size. The beast has well and cleverly to hunt wild ungulates, chasing them and hitting strong legs breaking the prey’s neck.
- Also, in the main meals of wild bear will be related to the place of his residence. On the territory of Primorye and the Far East species eats mainly vegetarian food, in contrast to the brown bear. His main source of food are: fruits, berries, nuts and acorns. Of animal food the bear prefers insects as a large species, and larvae. On vertebrates of larger size, in Primorye, the Asiatic black bear is mainly not attack and not even fishing, but never willing to eat carrion. Along with this, in tropical forests, the animal is able to maintain a predatory lifestyle, preying on a large number of small animals, birds and their egg, in some cases, the animal is able to attack wild hoofed animals of animals.
- With the arrival of spring as soon as the bear can come out of their hiding, until such time as the greens are not erupted to the surface, the animals used as food remains of last year’s crop of nuts and acorns, much of his free time is spent on the deployment of wood to find the beetles-bark beetles, suitable for power. From the claw marks that the bears leave on the bark of a tree, they are happy to lick the juice, which is able to efficiently clean the digestive system bears after a long long drawn-out winter. Over time, when it begins to appear the first grass and vegetation, bear goes on a herbivorous diet, and later eats fruits and berries.
- In the fall, starting in October and before leaving the shelter, the Ussuri bear eats only nuts and acorns. The main summer food – the fruit of the trees- the beast gets, using their skills in climbing the trunks and branches of trees. Perched on some tree, whether the bear sits down and begins to actively break branches profusely covered with berries, and fold them under. By creating the same method something like the nest, he grabs the legs all sticking out of the branch and starts to eat the succulent and nourishing fruits berries. But on pine trees and oaks bear also can not easily cope with heavy and large branches. In this case a bear breaks need his branches and throws them on the ground, eats fruit on earth, if there would not a brown bear, who frequently uses the efforts of brother and cope with food alone.
So, compared to the Ussuri brown bear uses in your diet, not only grain crops, but the fruits of plants that are far away on the treetops. With such a diet , the nutrition of the animal is most enhanced: no number of collected acorns and nuts able to ensure the Ussuri bear the right number of minerals and vitamins. For this reason, black bear has a more favorable position.
It may not leave their homes for one week or even more, while brown bear, feeding on fruit, fallen from the trees, should regularly change their place of supply. Ultimately, Asiatic black bear stored the right amount of fat that protect it during the winter hibernation, and are also used by the body bears in the first spring activity.
Reproduction and raising of offspring
The period of active reproduction in animals begins in summer and extends until July. After the process of mating the Ussuri bear continues nurturing future offspring about 8 months. Next born a few young cubs, which have a mass equal to 400 grams. Like other species of bears, females Ussuri offspring coming to light in the period of hibernation.
The newborn is quite fragile, blind, and are unable to live independently, so the bear is not long enough coming out of his hiding place. At this time, she continues to take care of the kids and waits until they are fully recovered.
So, when the cubs will be 3 -4 years, they become fully Mature and adults. Life expectancy blackx bears up to 25 years.
What kind of enemies there are in this type?
On the Asiatic black bear is able to attack more larger animals, such as the Amur tiger or even a brown bear. It so happens that the Ussuri bears are attacked by wolves and lynxes. Most often, these predatory animals hunt just for the young cubs. When the bear grows up to the age of five, he becomes the most powerful and strong, so few of the representatives of predatory animals ready to just attack him.
How can a person use Asiatic black bear?
- The main value of these individuals considered their meat quality and thick, dense fur, because of this a large number of Ussuri bears becoming victims of hunting poachers. In national practice widely used gall bladder of the animal, and in Chinese cuisine the meat from the clutches of the Ussuri bears are considered exquisite and valuable culinary dish.
- Human activities and widespread poaching are capable of inflicting large losses in the number and populations of this species. The population of areas inhabited by bear, rarely abides by all the rules of the legal hunting and killing of animals in any season, even in a time when bears hibernate, despite the fact that this animal is in the red book of Russia.
- Another reason why the number of animals is sharply reduced, it is believed the felling of trees for sale, as well as frequent fires, or fire. Often hunters when looking for prey, can carve a hole in a hollow tree, and after that Asiatic black bears can no longer use this wood for further accommodation. All these factors negatively affect the upcoming winter hibernation black bear. Sometimes it happens that the animal has to spend the winter on the bare ground. Due to the lack of safe shelter, the mortality of bears from the clutches of predators is increasing. The beast can attack a brown bear, Amur tiger, and the newborns will be easy prey for a lynx or a wolf.
The conservation of Asiatic black bear
After the animal brought in the Red book, hunting and poaching are strictly prohibited and punishable to the fullest extent of the law. Environmentalists are very closely watching the places where animals live actively, and strictly monitor the end to the massacres comfortable shelters for bears. To save the full population of bears are also fighting with the wolves.
To recover the species number of the Ussuri bear, for him to design nature reserves and zoos, where there are all conditions for comfortable life and habitat of this animal. The apiary, which usually go bearand carefully processed through frightening structures and devices.
Asiatic black bear and man
It is flexible, despite its large size and clever animal in ancient times, attracted much attention on the part of man. The beast created a lot of fairy tales and legends. The opportunity bear fast and without any problems to adapt to conditions of complete isolation from the wild has led to the fact that some specimens this species has acquired the status of real circus performers. The bear is able to memorize a large number of stunts and easily the stages of training and learning.
The main resident of the zoo, which is causing a large number of delight to visitors, is the Ussuri bear. The red book, which was made of these animals, take them to the vulnerable, and in inclusion they say that the animal must resist the movement with the purpose of commercial gain.
And still keep the bear in complete captivity quite difficult. So to bring the domesticated creature back into the wildin Primorsky Krai opened a rehabilitation complex in which learning takes place bears life in the wild.