Sturgeon as well as Beluga in particular, are extremely important industrial varieties. Nonetheless, due to the sharp decrease of the variety of all-natural populations in the second half of the twentieth century to today time, the fish, the Beluga is provided in the Red book as an unusual types.
It can be grown in artificial conditions, although with certain difficulties. Beluga relish is the most costly relish worldwide.
White sturgeon is a migratory fish, there are lives in the sea, however generates in the river. This species lives in the Caspian, Azov and also Black seas.
The most countless is the populace of Caspian Beluga in the sea it can be found all over. The primary generating website for Beluga of the Caspian is the Volga. Likewise a handful of these fish are generating in the Ural river, Kura and also Terek. Really really tiny variety of spawns in little rivers flowing into the Caspian sea in Azerbaijan as well as Iran. In General, it can be located in any kind of river, fairly close to the places of the Caspian sea, where the fish is the Beluga.
In the past, generating Beluga entered the river much enough for hundreds and also thousands of kilometers. On the Volga, she climbed to Tver and to the top reaches of the Kama. Due to the building of numerous hydroelectric power stations on the rivers streaming into the Caspian sea, modern-day belugas have to be restricted to only the lower reaches.
Previously, numerous enough were the Azov population of belugas, yet to day, she was on the brink of extinction. From the sea of Azov fish rises in the dawn and in very small quantities in the river Kuban. As in the case of the Caspian sturgeon natural spawning grounds high in the circulation was cut off by the building and construction of hydroelectric
power plants. Ultimately, in the Black sea, where the fish lives Beluga, its population is likewise really sparse and focused mainly in the North-West of the sea, although videotaped situation of its incident off the coastline of the southerly Crimea, the Caucasus as well as Northern Turkey. Spawning regional Beluga worn the three biggest rivers are the Danube, Dnieper as well as Dniester. Some people spawn in the southern pest. Prior to the construction of hydropower plants on the Dnieper sturgeon captured in the location of Kiev, as well as also in Belarus. Similar circumstance with Dniester. However on the Danube, she still can climb up far sufficient up to the Serbian-Romanian border, where one of both Danube HPP.
To the 70-ies of the last century, the sturgeon is sometimes captured in the Adriatic sea, where she walked on in the river to generate. Nonetheless, in the last couple of years no case of catch of Beluga in this region are not marked, triggering the Adriatic sturgeon is considered to be extinct.
Beluga — — summary fish
Beluga sturgeon fish is the biggest of all freshwater fish. In the historic Chronicles of the disputed credibility of the reference of the catch of individuals of length as much as 9 metres as well as weight as much as 2 lots. Nevertheless, those sources that are not questionable, the outcome is no much less excellent numbers.
For example, the book on the state of Russian fishery from 1861 discusses Beluga weighing 90 extra pounds(half a bunch ), caught near Astrakhan in 1827. Published in 1948, Handbook on freshwater fishes of the USSR points out a female Beluga considering 75 extra pounds(1,200 kg), which was caught in the Caspian sea near the mouth of the Volga river in 1922. Everybody can directly see a stuffed Beluga solid, exhibited at the National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan in Kazan.
One of the most current situation of catching such a massive samplings videotaped in 1989, when the Volga Delta captured a sturgeon that evaluated 966 pounds. Her effigy can additionally be seen in a Museum, yet in Astrakhan.
According to specialists, the biggest fish, the Beluga should be matured in years. It is possible that some people could be aged 100 years or more. All this exceptional instance. The ordinary weight of fish spawning in the river is 90-120 kg in ladies and also 60 to 90 kg in males. Nonetheless, also of this dimension, the Beluga is only at the age of 25-30 years. And premature young people usually weighs no more than 20-30 kg.
If left alone the large size of this fish, as a whole it is typical for sturgeon look. She’s got an enormous upper body elongated round form and a little sharp nose. Beluga has a blunt short nose and a huge mouth in the form of a Crescent. A mouth rimmed by a thick « lip»». On the snout there are a large antennae.
The head and body dotted with in proportion rows of bony scutes( additionally called pests): 12-13 on the back, 40-45 on each side as well as 10-12 under. The leading color in the shade Beluga is grey, which is repainted the back, sides, and top of the head. Bottom Beluga painted white.
The very first thing pointed out in any kind of summary of fish, Beluga is her means to generate. The main area of life of this fish are of the sea, however generating it goes in large rivers, as discussed previously.
It is noteworthy that the Beluga has a so-called springtime and winter forms (race). Particularly, in the Volga fish can be found in 2 waves: in the initial fifty percent of autumn — — winter months, in the initial fifty percent of spring — spring. However, dominates in this river all wintertime Beluga, which winter seasons in river openings, and after that promptly begins spawning in April-may. In the Ural river opposite most of belugas describes the spring race, they spawn immediately after falling under the river, and then swim back into the sea.
Like all sturgeon, Beluga is a fish of prey. The young feeds on various invertebrates and clams, obtaining them under in estuaries. After mixed-up a grown young adequate quickly goes to feeding fish. The Caspian sea is the basis of the diet of Beluga are carp, roach, sprat, etc on top of that Beluga had no qualms regarding eating their very own young and other representatives of the sturgeon household. The black sea Beluga feeds primarily on anchovy and also gobies.
Sexual maturation of Beluga reaches late: men at 12-14 years ladies — 16 to 18 mins. Because of such a long maturation in conditions of extensive industrial fishing, the view and also showed up on the verge of extinction. As currently
discussed, the spawning of sturgeon falls on the 2nd fifty percent of the spring, although a considerable component of the fish goes to the river in the autumn. Spawning of Beluga when the spring flooding optimal, as well as the temperature level of the river water is 6-7 ° C. Caviar is tossing on the rapids in the deep areas (not much less than 4 feet, typically 10-12 m) with a rough base. One female lays at least 200 thousand eggs, yet usually the account goes on millions (8 million) of an Egg large enough in size about 4 mm.
After spawning, white sturgeon fish in the Volga and various other rivers promptly mosted likely to sea. Youthful larvae additionally do not stay in the river.
Economic worth of sturgeon
Since old times, is considered an industrial fish of high value. Energetic angling is carried out at the very least given that the VI century BC. In the XX century with the growth of industrial fishing methods, the manufacturing of sturgeon has reached extraordinary proportions. In the Volga in 70-ies were captured yearly by 1.2-1.5 thousand bunches of this fish.
Unreasonably intense catch red fish white sturgeon, along with the construction of hydroelectric power plants anywhere in the rivers, where it generates, have led to a sharp reduction in its population throughout the second fifty percent of the last century. At the beginning of the 90s, the catch went down to 200-300 loads per year, and at the end of the years — — below 100 bunches. In such conditions the Russian government in 2000 outlawed the commercial catch of white sturgeon on its territory, a years later on, Russia signed up with various other nations of the Caspian area. Points are even worse in the Black as well as Azov seas, where the populace of Beluga has been decreased to miniscule dimension.
The real inability to make certain supply of customer meat market as well as, not the very least, the Beluga relish has developed the problems for the advancement of fish ranches that specialize in this type of fish. Today, they are the only lawful suppliers of this product on the shelves. However, unlawful fishing is, regrettably, additionally holds a substantial share of this market.
The fish factories Beluga separation is not just as well as not a lot in kind, the number of’s crossbreed with other sturgeon — — sturgeon, stellate sturgeon and also sturgeon. Particularly huge spread Bester — — the fish is a cross in between Beluga and sterlet. It is not just expanded in fish farms, however even populate in the sea of Azov and also freshwater reservoir.
Beluga in cooking
Meat Beluga and particularly their eggs are taken into consideration a true special, from which you can prepare true cooking masterpiece. The fish subjected to all kinds of warmth treatment: steamed, fried, baked, steamed and grilled. And also a sturgeon, smoked, tinned and knocked. Meat Beluga is feasible to prepare numerous sorts of meals consisting of kebabs and salads.
With all this in Beluga as the fish are very healthy. It has a reduced calorie value and high material of easily digestible protein. In the Beluga lots of essential amino acids, which are badly needed for our body, yet not synthesized, as well as can just be obtained from food. The meat of this fish contains a lot of calcium as well as phosphorus, contributing to the reconstruction and also strengthening of bones, and likewise boosts the problem of nails as well as hair. Offered in Beluga potassium improves cardiac muscle mass function and also iron has useful results on blood composition.
Beluga meat is abundant in vitamin a, which influences visual skill as well as the problem of the skin. It has various other essential vitamins(crucial for muscular tissue as well as nerve tissue),
D( protects against the growth of rickets and osteoporosis). We should also point out the Beluga eggs. The women spawn large black relish, which is unbelievably extremely valued by exquisites. Since the commercial catch of white sturgeon is forbidden today, however in terms of tank farming require around 15 years to grow fish to avoid her eggs, the expense of this item gets to overpriced prices. In Russia, 100 grams of Beluga eggs sets you back regarding 10-20 thousand rubles, extra pounds — — to 150 thousand rubles. In Europe and various other markets the price of a kilogram of this caviar ranges from 7-10 thousand dollars. It is apparent that to get in a routine store such eggs is impractical.
Synthetic reproduction of sturgeon
Beluga as well as Bester (fish of the sturgeon hybrid of Beluga and also sterlet) can be fed with man-made feed, and also as a result ideal for business fish farming. This innovation is instead pricey, specifically considering that to get the calf bones you want to increase fish for at least 15 years.
While the larvae do not get to the weight of 3 grams, expanded in special trays. Dishes both synthetic and all-natural food. After getting to the larvae of the indicated weight, they are sent for rearing in ponds with an equipping density of around 20 thousand duplicates per hectare.
The innovation to reproduce in the house fish Beluga attends to transfer of fingerlings to food fish meat of reduced worth types with numerous additives. In parallel a substantial component of the diet for young people will offer themselves at the cost of fish pond invertebrates. The reaction of the predator of fingerlings Beluga appears at the end of the summer season, which implies a growth of the share of meat in her diet.
From Beluga fingerlings the weight gain is faster in problems where temperature level and also make-up of the water close to the ideal values, as a result, one of the most crucial jobs of the fishery is to keep fish ponds for optimal conditions.
In the initial year the average conversion price of feed from Beluga is 2.8 devices. At the end of the very first season, the fish raises its mass from 3 to 150 g, With a typical survival of fingerling at 50% of their fish performance reaches 20 kg/ha.
In wintering fish ponds (optimum ponds ranging from a quarter to half a hectare at a depth of 2-3 m, as well as without silt and plant life) of fingerlings planted in the quantity of 120 thousand pieces per hectare. Hibernation starts in October — — November and also lasts up until March. In wintertime, the Beluga offer feed in an amount of 2% of the total weight of the fish, and also the formation of surface ice feeding is quit altogether. For of fingerlings Beluga is a natural loss of 30-40% of its mass throughout this time around. The dimensions of the Beluga sturgeon fish are not changed.
In very early April, the fish sent back to grow-out ponds, where they apply intensive feeding. Dvuhletkami give reduced worth icy fish. A lot of the young animals expand in the second half of the summer, and the conversion of the feed raises this period to 6 kg of feed per 1 kg increase in mass.
Upon getting to 2 years old mass of 0.7 kg (by the end of the 2nd period regarding fifty percent) they are sent for sale to the food network. The remainder of the fish leave for an additional year as well as expand to masses of 1.7-2 kg. In conditions of high survival price of yearlings and three years old (95%) with strict observance of modern technology of expanding fish efficiency will certainly be 50-75 kg/ha.