Rays is the flying carpets of the underwater world, because the so-called cartilaginous fish with a flat body shape. The representatives of this systematic group is very diverse, so United in some groups, constitute a single superorder Rays. In the world there are about 340 species of fish. Systematically they are all close to sharks.
Due to the strong flattening of the body Gill openings, these fishes have completely shifted to the lower side of the body. There is also a wide mouth. On both sides of the mouth you can see a small hole. Ignorant people can take their tiny eyes, in fact, it bryzgalina. Through them SKAT pumps water into the Gill slits to breathe. Real eyes are beams on the upper side of the body. In different species, their size ranges from large to small, and the blind electric ray they are completely hidden under the skin.
In connection with such anatomical features have evolved and organs of movement. Anal fin rays reduced, and chest fused with the body turned into a flat “wings”. Some of the rays wings-fins are relatively small and do not participate in the movement, the main pusher they, like other fish, acts as a muscular tail. In other species, on the contrary, the pectoral fins are huge, and the tail is thin and weak. When a fish swims, it simultaneously raises and lowers the fins, as if flying in the water column. By the way, this method of movement allows us to develop slopes greater speed and even jump out of the water a few meters.
Size and coloration of these fish varies within very wide limits. Among them are the monochrome (gray, black, brown), and very colorful species (mottled, figured).
The tiny Indian electric ray reaches Dean is only 14 cm, and the largest manta, or sea-devil – reaches a length of 6-7 m and thus weighs 2.5 tons! When the giant jumps out of the water, his body falls into the ocean with a cannon roar.
No less diverse and the habitat of the stingrays. These fish are found in all climatic zones – from the tropics to the polar regions. Some species prefer the year-round cold water, others do not leave the warm currents, there are those that migrate long distances.
Though by nature most of the slopes are single, some species may form large aggregations. This pack is Eastern standard bichenov of migrating from Mexico to Florida, has about 10,000 species.
Stingrays can be found in shallow waters and at depths of up to 2000-2700 m. Most of them inhabit the seas and oceans and only the stingrays of the family of river stingrays has mastered the freshwater of South and Central America.
Typically, these fish are near the bottom, which is flat shape of the body fits in quite handy. But the giant manta is not afraid to swim far from the shore and bottom, large size protects it from enemies.
Prey stingrays are aquatic animals. Small species eat worms, benthic molluscs, crayfish, crabs, small octopuses. A large catch of fish: they are often the victims of sardines, haddock, capelin, mullet, plaice, cod, eel, salmon. But a huge manta, on the contrary, feeds on plankton and very small fish. Its prey, it simply filters out, the water flowing through the gills. However, the most unusual methods of fishing practiced list sawfish and electric rays, or fish-saw (not to be confused with saw sharks!).
First have electric organs that are managed by a special Department of the brain. “Battery” is able to accumulate charge at the right moment to discharge at a current of 7-8 Amer voltage at different kinds can reach from 80 to 300 volts. For small animals such a shock fatal to humans at best, very painful at worst can cause long-term paralysis of the limbs. As for fish-saw, her snout is elongated in the form of Board, studded on the edges of sharp teeth. With the help of this tool list sawfish Stingray digging in the soil, loosens it, and burst into a flock of fishes, hit the parties and kills his victims.
Interestingly, the rays, along with their closest relatives the sharks have a highly developed reproductive system. When breeding they either lay their egg capsules, or give birth to live young. In the first case, the female lays 1-2 eggs with an interval of 1-5 days. The breeding cycle can take months, during this period, one adult manages to lay from 4-5 to 50 eggs. Each egg is clothed with a Horny sheath, the edges of this bag end with threads, with their help, the egg capsule attached to the ground or algae.
The development of the embryo in different species lasts from 4 to 14 months. This is a very long time for fish, but the egg comes out not fry, and fully formed young stingrays. Have viviparous species the fry are developing in the mother’s body in a special organ, like the uterus of mammals. The main source of food for them is the yolk of the egg, in addition, embryos suck the liquid, which secrete the appendages “of the uterus”. This method of feeding similar to feeding milk from animals.
In nature, relative safety is that boasts manta, which is due to the huge size, nobody dares to attack. Other species become victims of various predatory fishes, especially sharks. For protection stingrays have developed a number of devices. Some species rely on protective coloration and flat body shape, masking them against the background of the soil. In the daytime benthic stingrays are inactive and prefer to lie down on the bottom, sprinkled himself with sand. Pelagic species rely on high speed and ability to jump out of the water. Stingrays are protected by a discharge current.
But the most dangerous rays. These fish are in the middle of the tail inconspicuous spike length 10-37 see On the bottom surface of the stud has a groove, littered with poisonous cells. Pursue the ramp with all his strength his tail from side to side, stab him a thorn is extremely painful, and for a person else and very dangerous. Even relatively harmless river stingrays venom can cause paralysis of the limbs, and the toxic marine species cause a sharp drop in blood pressure, vomiting and paralysis of skeletal muscles. The most famous victim of these fish is a popular Australian naturalist Steve Irwin, struck a needle right in the chest.
Some types of fish are the objects of Amateur and commercial fishing. Especially delicious is meat Mediterranean stag (mobula) and liver of sea cat. At the same time, larger species of manta rays need protection, as fish with low fecundity. Due to the flat shape of the body the rays are not very suitable for keeping in home aquariums, because they require a spacious storage tanks. But one can often see them in public aquariums, where the friendly non-venomous species are everyone’s favorite. These fish are willing to give themselves to be stroked and take food from the hands of visitors.
In the Black and Azov seas are very common fish such as the ramp-hvostokol. His second name, is a sea cat. Its appearance it is like a big flat pancake, his body is very smooth and streamlined shape. Color it dark purple almost black to shades of gray. Its fins like wings, with which he silently moves in the water space.
This kind of slope usually lives near the coast, at a depth of from ten to fifty meters. Mostly mainly on the bottom. Covered with seashells and sand. This slope, very smooth skin, and at the end of the tail is a sharp spike. Which contains a toxic substance. This poison is very toxic, he is like a snake and very dangerous to humans.
The Stingray meat is inedible, so it is not specifically caught. But during the flounder he very often catches the fishermen on the hook. If you accidentally caught such a miracle, it is better to let him go, but carefully, don’t forget about the poisonous tail.
In the black sea waters, dwells another kind of slope, as a sea Fox. Appearance she is quite formidable, thanks to its colour. She celepation brown body with a lot of spines, even on the tail spikes in two rows. But unlike the sea cat, Fox is not toxic, and its meat is quite edible.
In order to catch it, you need the evening or at night, set up special tackle. With thick fishing line. The hooks must be attached to the main fishing line, at intervals of about thirty inches. Starting from the load, which is fixed on the end of the rod. It is best to catch live bait such as small gobies or shrimp.
All night to sit and wait when will begin to bite, do not need. As Fox itself almost always fall for the bait. Most importantly, the right tackle and competently approach to this issue with the choice of location for fishing, this type of ramp. To install the gear to the desired position, it can be done by swimming, or by using a long rod and a powerful reel.
Basically it is believed that manta rays are caught because of his skin than meat. This fish has very durable skin, and is quite commonly used. Sew straps, wallets, bags and portfolios. Very often manta rays are caught with seines or different networks. During normal fishing. But most of the fishing happens on live bait. Using a good strong fishing line and hooks for catching large fish, as the rays grow to quite impressive sizes.
Fishing Stingray is an amazing and interesting activity that will allow each angler to get unforgettable emotions and good mood from the process of fishing. That’s why today, not only Amateurs, but also professionals, know about this amazing fish, as the ramp – hvostokol.
Basically, the fish lives, ranging from the Black sea, to its warm coastal waters of Africa.
Going to catch a Stingray on the Black sea, you can meet two types of rays: hvostokol, and sea Fox. With regard to first Vila, on his tail, you can detect the spike, with a poison gland, it in turn, and can inflict serious damage to someone who is trying to catch her.
The body of a Fox has sharp spikes, they are primarily used in self-defense. So, before you go fishing this fish, it is necessary to study all the peculiarities of this fish in order not to be faced with certain problems.
If you decide to catch a Stingray on the Black sea, it is best to use – a powerful rod that will obludit length up to four meters. Then there’s always the option to return home with a catch.
August is the best time for catching this fish, so, if you decided to go fishing for Stingray, you can give preference to this month. It is important to know that the Stingray is usually found along the coast, sometimes he goes closer to the shore, but it’s usually in the dark.
And don’t think that you are lucky because this happens rarely. This fish frequents the estuaries, and there are often professional anglers go after the bull from the boats, so they can always “stumble” on them.
If you fish from a boat, find a ramp is also possible, but to pull out it is problematic, especially for the beginner. If rubber boat, then do it at all difficult, because this fish will easily be able to punch a spiked Board, so better not to risk it.
Fishing scaresly you will be to catch a Stingray on the Black sea, it is best to use as bait – a small fish. And many anglers prefer the goby, small goby, it will be possible to stick a whole, the result is a live bait.
Remember that catch of a slope – hvostokol quite dangerous, as he can always damage the fisherman’s hand, so hundred times think before to go on such an exotic and risky fishing.