Fish of the herring family are found in all seas surrounding our country. Most of them are objects of fishery, in some periods of the year, they are attractive to anglers. There are about 160 species of herring. I will enumerate only some of them will start with the ocean (S. barengus L).
Atlantic, Murmansk herring is different, as all the oceanic herring, the large mouth; upper jaw there is no Central notch;belly pointed; anal fin rays are not elongated.
Silver with greenish-blue back of the fish has small, narrow fins, which are located in the middle of the back and abdomen. Body length up to 35 cm Spread in the Barents sea and in the ‘throat’ of the White sea. Spawning takes place near the North-West coast of Norway. After spawning the herring fattens East and North of spawning grounds. Drifting to the North-East, the fry of the Atlantic herring settled in the Barents sea. Return migration in the Norwegian sea begins when the herring reaches the age of four. The pack is divided into age categories. Adults feed on zooplankton and fingerlings.
Baltic herring, Baltic herring, – the average body length of 14-16 cm, the famous giant herring-strimling – 37 cm is Common in the Baltic sea, especially numerous in the Gulf of Riga. Comes in freshened areas and river mouths. It spawns near the shore. Caviar postpones locally on rocks and underwater vegetation at depths from 3 to 12 m. the Small form breeds from mid-may to early June, major – September-early October. Spawn, out in the open sea, winters in depth. Zooplankter.
Pacific, Eastern herring. Large – up to 47 cm in length, normal – to 37 see small Eyes. Common along the entire Asian coast (from the Laptev sea to the sea of Japan including). Found in the lakes of eared seal, of Vilyuchinsky volcano (Kamchatka). Spawns in spring at the shore, in rocky areas with a depth of 10-15 m, and some individuals spawn in lakes and brackish bays. Spawned, recedes into depth. Large migration of rare. The pack is divided into age categories. Zooplankter.
Herring has two forms: large – up to 33 cm (usually 20-28 cm) and small – to 18 cm (usually 12-13 cm) in length. Common in the White sea and in the coastal zone of the Barents sea. Large, so-called ‘Ivanovo herring’, spawns in June, portion, at depths up to 5 m; small, so-called ‘Egor herring’, lays eggs in the spring under the ice, near the shore and goes away after spawning at sea. Fry and feeds on planktonic crustaceans living in the upper layers of water. In September, goes into depth, where feeding intensity is reduced.
The Czech-Pechora herring – body length up to 30 cm, usually 18-20 cm Lives in the southeastern part of the Barents sea and in the southern part of the Kara sea and in the Mezen Bay and the Gulf of Ob. Spawning takes place from may to mid-July in the brackish areas of the coastal zone with depths to 3.5 m. lays Eggs on rocky or sandy soil. Spawn goes for foraging in the open sea. Fry feed on zooplanktons.
For the genus of Ponto-Caspian herrings – Caspialosa Berg. – characterized by the presence of a Central recess in the upper jaw and the wing-like scales at the base of the caudal fin.
Shad bigeye. Mouth large, end. Well-developed teeth. The eyes are large. Gill stamens (25-40) short, coarse and sparse. Behind the Gill cover on each side there are two dark patches on the sides of spots no. Length to 35 cm, usually 15-27 cm Lives in the Northern part of the Caspian sea. Spawns in batches, from April to may, at depths of from 1 to 6 m, on silt, sand and limestone. Zooplankton-phage and predator. Winters in southern Caspian sea.
The Caspian shad. The body high. On the jaws the teeth are poorly developed. There are numerous long and thin Gill rakers. There can be up to 170. For the Gill covers in dark stain. Spawns in may-June at depths to 15 m in the Northern part of the Caspian sea. The winter is spent in the southern waters of the sea. Comes in the Volga Delta. It feeds on zooplankton. Length up to 30 cm, usually 17-23 cm
Azov shad. Gill stamens are long, thin (61 – 85). Reaches length of 21 cm, usually 15 cm Rests in the Eastern waters of the Black and Azov seas. Migratory fish. Spawning run starts in late February. Since that time, moving in flocks to the lower reaches of the don and Kuban estuaries, where in April-may spawn. Then until September fattens in the sea of Azov. Punktorah. It winters in the Black sea.
Azov, the Kerch herring. Gill rakers 35-50, they are frequent, thin, straight. Body low, elongated. Spin gray-green-blue. For the Gill covers in dark stain. Body length about 30 cm Lives in the Black and Azov seas. It spawns from April to early June in the bays and estuaries of the Azov sea, in the estuary part of the river don. Fry feed on zooplanktons. It winters in the Black sea. Move through the Kerch Strait in the sea of Azov begins in March. Back to the Black sea is in August-December.
Black sea herring, hare. Well-developed teeth. Gill rakers on average 55. Body low, elongated. Head and back blue-green, flanks silvery with a pink tinge. There are sunken spots on both sides behind the Gill covers. Forms 2 forms: a large (to 30 cm) and small (to 20 cm). Widespread in the Black and Azov seas. Spawning from April to August walks into the Danube, Dniester, bug, Dnieper, don. Eats whitebait and crustaceans. It winters in the Black sea. The beginning of a move in early April (via the Kerch Strait). The first is a large herring, then fine. For wintering in the Black sea leave in reverse order – first the small, then large herring. The course ends in early December.
The Volga herring. Teeth are poorly developed. Gill rakers 100 – 150, they are thin and long. Back almost black or dark purple. Body length up to 35 cm Lives in the Caspian sea basin. Migratory fish. Spawning (may-August) is the Volga. Feeds on crustaceans and fish. The winter is spent in the southern Caspian sea.
Marine schooling fish, living mainly in the surface layers of water; in the winter and for spawning falls in the bottom horizons, but no deeper than 200-300 m. the Usual case of positive temperatures and high salinities, but in some areas significant transfers and desalination; and occasionally comes into the mouth of the rivers; some of the southern populations (Kattegat, Sund, formerly Zuiderzee) spawn when salinity 8-22%o all in the time and conditions of spawning in different forms, there are significant differences: some southern populations, for example, the Danish Straits, as well as herring from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and North. America spawn near the coast at a depth of 40-50 m, while the Bank of herring in the North sea, and Murmansk shape, spawn at depths to 200 m. At the time of spawning distinguish spring, summer, autumn and winter herrings; of these the most numerous spring and autumn herring.
Spawning grounds of herring in Murmansk located near the Lofoten Islands, mainly from Sulphur to Resta, to a much lesser extent and in more Northern areas (Finnmark). Spawning in March-April. Caviar vymatyvayutsya on sandy or gravel soil at depth (50) 130-225 m at a temperature of about 4-7° C and salinity 34-35% o. Fecundity of Atlantic herring ranges from 10 to 100 thousand eggs, Murmansk is 15-23 thousand eggs with a diameter of 1.6-2.1 mm. 2-3 weeks after spawning, hatch larvae with a Length of 5-8 mm, which after a week begin to passively pelagic lifestyle and are carried far by the currents, reaching o the Bear and the shores of Murman. By August-September, reaches a length of 4-6 cm, these masses approach the coast, often met near the river mouths.
Formed fingerlings larger than 6-7 cm (so-called “sprat”) actively lead a pelagic lifestyle, widely settling almost all Barentsevo sea. Young herring (up to 2-3 years – “small herring”, 3-4 years of age “fat herring”) periodically approaches the coast – “sprat” and small herring mostly in summer, fat herring in the winter. Maturing herring gradually moving into South-Western areas of the Barents sea, approaching the spawning grounds near the Lofoten Islands. Major re-spawning herring (ages 9-10 years or more) depart after spawning to the far North, reaching the West coast of Spitsbergen (“North hall”).
The maturity of the Murmansk herring reaches the ground in 5 to 6 year old. On its further growth can be judged by the analyses of a large (already arestovala) of herring from the Svalbard area (Marty, 1941) : 7+28.8 cm, 9+30.2 cm, 11 + 31.4 cm, 13+32.2 cm life expectancy of 15-20 years.
The main food object of herring Barents sea serve Euphausiidae and Calanus finmarchicus. The boldovsky (1941) found the following scheme of seasonal change in feeding intensity of the Murmansk herring. After a very weak winter feeding period, from March to April, the feeding intensity of herring increases (mainly due to the Euphausiidae), but the resumption of growth and increased fat begins later, from the end of may. The most intensive feeding period occurs in June – July (Calanus), then autumn (August-October) gradually weakened (the period of supplementary feeding); during this period the stomachs of herring dominated by Euphausiidae, and sometimes also the fish fry (cod, sand eels, native fish), Limacina, etc., the Greatest growth occurs during the summer feeding and autumn, the highest fat content achieved in August-September.
Spawning Norwegian herring occurs in the South-Western coast of Norway in February-April, the larvae along the Norwegian coast relate the current to the Finnmark (smaasild Norwegians), but reaching 2-3 years of age actively migrate South back (fetsild). With the approach of puberty, the assumptions of Norwegian authors, part of the herring departs for the open sea, passing the so-called oceanic stage (detected by the scales reading). Appropriate to the coast of Norway for spawning large herring (storsild, vaarsild) has an age of 4-7 years.
In the Barents sea Norwegian herring has a limited distribution, apparently, going only in the South-Western part at a young age.
Economic value. The most important commercial fish in the North Atlantic ocean, occupying second place in world fisheries (15-16 million kg). The greatest number of herring caught in the North sea (up to 9-10 million kg.), off the coast of Norway and Iceland. In the Barents sea our catches in good years reach 1 million TS.