Aka bars, aka the Panther belongs to the cat family. Most often can live in the middle East, South-East, South and West Asia, southern Africa and Siberia.
Most often black leopards can be found in savannas, grasslands and meso-forests. As well as favorite places so-called African cats, are mountain, Bush and desert.
Environment and habitat
Distinguish the 9 subspecies of leopard:
- African (panthera pardus pardus) – Africa area.
- Indian (panthera pardus fusca) is the area of India.
- Mandarin Chinese (panthera pardus japonensis) is a habitat of the Northern China.
- Ceylon (panthera pardus kotiya) – the area of Sri Lanka.
- Indo-Chinese (panthera pardus delacourii) is the area South of China and Southeast Asia.
- Javan (panthera pardus melas) is the area of the island of Java.
- Arabian (panthera pardus nimr) is the area Arabia.
- Persian (panthera pardus saxicolor) is the area of Central Asia.
- Far East (panthera pardus orientalis) is the area of the Korean Peninsula, northeast China and the Russian far East.
Females occupy a territory of about 4 square kilometers, and males – 12. That is, one female have about 3 males.
Compared to the long torso and legs of the leopard are relatively short. They have a broad head and massive skull with powerful jaw muscles. The head is crowned with small round ears. On the brow of a wild cat, long whiskers, protect the eyes from the thick vegetation, among which the predator move around a big fan. Color from light yellow can reach up to reddish-orange depending on the habitat of the animal. The shape of the spots of the leopard depends on their habitats in East Africa, it is round, South Africa – square.
On the chest, legs and face predators solid black spots, tail – ring. Kids solid color – smoky-gray, stains on it is not visible. Drawing each individual is unique, like human fingerprints – never the same. Black leopard or Panther is the individual with the recessive genes malaysiakini.
Wild male cats weigh from 30 to 65 pounds, while females range from 16 to 57 pounds. The length of the first is from one half to two and a half meters, the second – half to two meters.
In natural conditions, i.e. in the wild, leopards live between 10 to 12 years. In captivity, the lifespan is much longer and is on average from 21 to 23 years. As among all other living beings, and there are centenarians – 17 years record the life of wild cats living in the wild and 27 years in captivity.
Unfortunately, the cubs African leopards survive only in 40-50% of cases.
Mostly these predators prefer to eat ungulates: antelope, Gazelle, wild boar, deer, and livestock – is the main diet of the African leopard. But can also eat birds, rodents, arthropods, reptiles, carrion. The weight of production ranges from 10-40 pounds.
Wild cats hunt, setting up an ambush – lie in wait and pounce on their prey – in most cases, the victim does not even have time to react, because this predator sneaks silently as a cat and lightning attacks. From leopard bites into the neck of the victim, causing instant paralysis of the second, then chokes her and takes to a quiet secluded place. Big African cats allows them to hunt for prey that is 10 times greater than their weight.
Leopard females attract males with pheromonescontained in their urine. Calling to mate, the female zazyvayusche walks in front of the male, periodically flapping its tail. Mating lasts an average of 3 seconds, but the number of matings can be up to 100 times per day, with an interval of about 6 minutes.
To breed African cat is capable of all year round. Estrus in females lasts 7 days, and the gestation period of 96 days. Usually females lose ability to reproduce at the age of 8-9 years.
Cubs at birth weigh less than 1 kilogram. Eyes, the little leopards, open later, 1 week after birth, at 2 weeks the puppies are learning to walk. Regularly to get out of the lair and there is the usual leopards food starting at the age of 6-8 weeks. Prior to this period, the mother may be away from the kids, going out to hunt, to 36 hours, leaving the cubs in a well protected places. At the age of three months ends breastfeeding, and the babies moving to solid foods. At 20 weeks, the pups usually leave the den, becoming fully independent.
- These wild cats are nocturnal predators. With other canines communicate through the roar, growl, purr. Its territory like all members of the cat, labeled urine and claws.
- These predators are capable of speeds up to 60 km/hour, jump to a height of over three meters high and make jumps of length 6 meters. Have excellent hearing and sight. Feel great, both on land and in water.
Leopards are relatively tolerant person, but can attack him, when wounded, as easy prey.
A very big threat to these predators is people – people kill leopards for their valuable fur. For the cubs of wild cats are very dangerous lions, tigers, hyenas and African wild dogs.
The number of leopards in many regions of their habitat is declining due to fragmentation and loss of habitat. Leopards have protected status “close to the vulnerable situation”. Despite the fact that leopards are the most common predators of all the big cats – five of the nine subspecies are already listed in the Red book and are under threat of extinction.