Let the hunt in our time has become one of the types of men’s Hobbies, while there are still people for whom it still is a life style a way to earn One of the most common and, one might say, the traditional goals – a mountain goat.
There are several reasons:the meat is delicious and his appetite eat; from skins to produce fur and leather products; horn – one of a very honorable trophies, since it is a mountain to catch the animal so easy- they often move around cliffs, mountains, steep, and not everyone has the strength to catch such a nimble animal.
As you know, in some of the areas currently crossed with mountain goats domesticated goats that are said to “refresh the blood” of some breed. Moreover, mountain goat and the goat also effectively multiply in freedom as in captivity.
Mountain goats are of several species, which, in turn, are divided into 3 groups:
The main difference is the appearance of horns, a common feature is their inner cavity and immutability.
In young animals the horns typically curved like an arc, and she in turn, after a certain period of time, as they grow older the goat, begins to turn into a spiral. The largest group of Capricorn has the front wide and saleabration curved horns with frequent Velikobritanii thickening.
This group includes:
- Nubian goat
- Pyrenean mountain goat,
- the ibex or mountain-goat, or the Capricorn ordinary.
The last specified species is found in the Italian Alps and in one of the areas of the Swiss Alps. Back in the early 20th century, smuggling was introduced.
Each of these types have their 10 subspecies: 4 – Siberian and Iberian goat, 2 – Nubian, etc..
Look how Capricorns
Despite the fact that these species have a direct relationship, subtypes, however, have some differences that affect not only their habitats.
For example, ibexa distinguished on the basis of:
- thick and long horns curved shape, diverging in different directions (in males they can grow up to one meter in length, in females they look like small, slightly curved graceful horns);
- a short beard the individuals of both sexes;
- hard and thick hair, the color of which depends usually on the season: in winter it is grey in summer, dark brown (females are brown with a Golden);
- body length on average is not more than 150 cm, height up to 90 cm.
- weight of females is usually not more than 40 kg, the weight of males can reach up to 100 kg.
Externally Nubian goats look like this:
- horns – long and thin, folded back and folded down, size of males up to one meter, have a goats – not more than 30 cm.
- the basic color is yellowish-brown in color identical to the habitat (North-East of Africa, the mountains and rocks, Arabia, and Ethiopia), in August, the color may vary from dark brown to black.
- the characteristic feature of the Nubian goats (usually males) – the dark strip on the back.
- the weight of goats – about 26,5 kg, goats three times harder to 62.5 kg.
- body length Nubian goats – 105 and 125 cm
- body height from 65 to 75 cm in males and females.
Pyrenean goat has a characteristic shape of horns : they are slightly curved, directed upwards and inwards, like the Lira.
Siberian ibex can be recognized by the following features:
- massive horns, very curved back, longer than one meter,
- beard expressed more clearly than in other species,
- the coat color depends on season, but always has a brown base.
- neck and back, the males of the Siberian goat can be covered with the characteristic white spots.
- the growth of Siberian goats – 67 – 110 cm
- animals weight 35 – 130 kg.
- body length – 130 – 165 cm.
A group of mountain goats, called “tours”, mostly just one Western Caucasian species, which has an additional three subspecies, and their list often varies between different sources.
For example, great Soviet encyclopedia (Great Soviet encyclopedia) used the name “Kuban Tur and Tur Severtsov” as synonyms for the naming of the main species, but as subspecies were isolated so-called “tour of Guldenstadt” (or “Central Caucasian Tur”).
Other sources of this subspecies, on the contrary, unite with the main view, but have a seperate tour Severtsov.
So here we take a definite basis for all classification rounds of the division into subspecies:
- Alpine rock,
These tours subspecies live in different parts of the Caucasus to a fairly small area (slightly more than 4 thousand square km).
Their General appearance – in the form of a wide spiral curved horns, which in cross section is considerably rounded. However, between these subspecies differ in the nature of the curve of the horns and their orientation. For example, vostochnobeisky tour has the tips of the horns directed upwards and backwards, Alpine rock – inwards and downwards.
However, we can say that there are other differences between these subspecies – genetic, morphological and so on. And scientists have long been alarmed that their pairing between them leads to sterile as one, and in another population. Therefore, according to the latest data from the International Union for conservation of nature, the number of animal rounds these subspecies has more than 10 thousand individuals in connection with the international Red book appropriated Western Caucasus tour status “in danger”, and the Eastern Caucasus – “close to threatening”.
Mountain goats, as they are
The group, called “goats”, has two kinds –
- markhor (markhor),
- domesticated mountain goat (sub – bezoar goat, her ancestor).
Also, in turn, the markhor has three subspecies, which differ from each other only in minor features of the structure of horns and habitat.
He lives in the mountains of Tajikistan, little Tibet, Western Himalayas, Kashmir, and Afghanistan.
It is characterized by:
- spiral horns (which he is obliged to the name of your view), which reach 0.5 – 1 m in length,
- long dark-brown beard (suspension), which, brightening, becoming drooping mane.
- the head and legs of dark color,
- the belly is light in color,
- body length up to 1.5-a 1.7 meter
- tail length – up to 17-18 cm
- height – not more than 90 cm,
- weight – 90 kg
- reddish-gray color of wool, with the passage of time becomes a dirty white.
In domestic goats, usually, the horns compressed laterally, forming a sharp cutting edge.
Protruding rib of the horn is highlighted not as clear as in other groups, some individuals may be completely without horns. Other common symptoms cannot be established, since there are a large number of domesticated breeds of goats that vary in coat color, size and so on.
The most recognizable, as a rule, bezoar goat, which lives in Afghanistan, Caucasus, Baluchistan, Persia and Asia Minor and on some Mediterranean Islands.
Characterized by the following features:
- strongly curved horns with converging tips, which curved backwards curved,
- body type – stocky, legs – strong, wide hooves,
- the hair is long, its color the males have just like many, depends on the season: in winter it has a silvery-white body, breast and part of the muzzle – black-brown, in summer it acquires a red tint; females have yellowish-brown wool,
- the characteristic two bands, one on the back, second from the breast to the back; females have this band alone
- the tail is black, about 12 cm,
- body length – approx. 1. 5 m, with occasional specimens of 1.2-1.6 million m
- weight depends on gender and age and ranges from 25 kg to 95,
- growth of 0.7-1 m.
Despite the relatively extensive habitat, bezoar goat included in the Red book.
Visiting the mountain goats
Mountain goats shun smooth places, preferring to live in the gorges, steep rocks, mountain slopes and other inaccessible places at a height of 1.5-5.5 km above sea level. At this altitude, these animals spend almost the entire year, sometimes going down into the valley and the foothills only during especially cold winters.
Mountain goats exclusively adapted to existence in the mountains, they are strong and hardy, but also very clever and brave – can jump over cliffs up to several meters wide, manage free to stand almost perfectly vertical surfaces, perfect hold balance while moving and running, and often demonstrate to those who sees the wonders of rock climbing, especially when they had to escape from the chase.
Amazing agility of mountain goats is caused by the presence of all these species and subspecies are narrow and hard hooves, and this allows them to keep the balance, even on the narrowest ledges.
It is an interesting fact: habitat of all subspecies and groups of mountain goats never intersect. That is, for example, where the ibex lives, it is impossible to meet the Iberian goat, and the usual mountain goat, despite the fact that close to a subspecies of bezoar, avoid those territories, settles the bezoar goat.
The only exception is the Caucasian goat, and his subspecies. Scientists suggest that one reason for such territorial mutually abstinence is a special secret, which allocate special glands that are available to each goat and placed at the bottom of the tail. The smell of secretions, which is especially enhanced in heat, very sharp and is known as “goat”. Apparently, he easily perceived by animals even at considerable distances.
Mountain goats have a herd and a sedentary lifestyle. They mostly prefer to live separate mixed groups (males and females) of 3-5 individuals. However, in the Himalayas, where there are Siberian ibex were found mixed flocks.
Among males, observed a strict hierarchy. They achieve it by resorting to fights and a certain manner of conduct.
Females often live together with kids. In winter, these grow in number and turn into whole tens and even hundreds of heads.
Goats join the herd of goats and goats only during the mating period. However, males of some subspecies – for example, ibexa live in the herd with goats and offspring all winter and leave it only with the onset of spring.
Mountain goats graze in the late evening or early morning, and in the places where they are actively hunted, and night. The day the goats are resting in the most remote places.
For them characteristic of extreme caution because the number of their enemies includes not only people, but also various large predators:
- snow leopard,
For some types of hunting also and hyenas.
Sometimes mountain goats show amazing courage. About the dangers they signal others perfectly audible specific bleat. This allows animals to recognize the threat and also developed sense of smell, and the presence of a large and moving sensitive ears, which are pointed at the ends.
Mountain goats – undoubtedly one of the animal species on earth, which is enjoyed by people of great honor and respect. In the Eastern culture to this day is revered mountain goats. For example, in Tibet and Ladakh in the birth of a baby there is a custom to give his parents modeled from flour figurine of a goat.
In the current Pakistan markhor is the national symbol of the country. And the Arab in ancient times scholars in honor of the mountain goats called one of the constellations of the Zodiac – Capricorn.