The most advanced, the most intelligent monkey – humanoid. And asks the word humanoid. And all because our kind they have in common very much.
About great apes can talk a lot, long and with passion simply because they are really close to our mind. But, everything in order.
All of these animals secrete 4 types:
- the Bonobo (or pygmy chimpanzee).
Bonobos and chimpanzees are very similar to each other, but the remaining two did not similar to each other, neither chimp.
However, all great apes can distinguish a lot in common, for example:
- they have no tail,
- the similar structure of the brushes of the upper limbs and hands of a man
- very large brain volume (while its surface full of fissures and convolutions, which indicates a high level of intelligence of these animals)
- there are 4 groups of blood,
- the blood of bonobos in medicine used for transfusion to a man with the right blood group.
All these facts speak of the “blood” roast ve these creatures with people.
Both gorillas and chimpanzees are found in Africa, and the continent is considered the cradle of all mankind. The orangutan, as scientists believe, the most genetically distant far our relative among the great apes living in Asia.
The social life of chimpanzees
Chimpanzees live, as a rule, the groups, on average, 15-20 individuals. The group, headed by one male leader, and includes females, males of all ages. Groups of chimps occupy the territory from intrusions by neighbors themselves males and guarded.
In places where food is sufficient for a comfortable stay of a group of chimpanzees lead a sedentary lifestyle. However, if enough food for the whole group, then they wander in search of food for quite long distances. It happens that the territory where several groups overlap. In this case, they for some time together. It is interesting that in all conflicts the advantage is given to the group that contains more males and which in this respect is stronger. Permanent chimpanzee families are not creating. This means that any adult male has the right to freely choose their next girlfriend from adult females, and both their own affiliated group.
After 8-month pregnancy, the female chimp born one absolutely helpless cub. Up to year of life the female carries the baby on the stomach then the child is transplanted to her back. For as much as 9-9,5 years old, the female and the baby is almost inseparable. The mother teaches him everything she knows, shows him the world and other members of the group. There are times when teenagers give in to your “kindergarten”. there they frolic with their peers under the supervision of several adults, usually females.
When the child is 13 years old, a chimpanzee is entering a period of adulthood and begin to be considered independent members of the pack. The young males begin to compete for leadership development,
Chimpanzees are quite aggressive animals. The group often there are conflicts that escalate into bloody fights that often end in death. To establish a relationship between apes gives the opportunity for a wide range of expressions, gestures and sounds, which they pass on their approval. Friendly feelings these animals Express through the shuffling of wool from each other.
Chimpanzees produce their own food and in the trees and on the ground there, and there is feeling in its place.
Their food include:
- plant foods,
- small animals.
In addition, hungry chimps, the whole team can go hunting and capture for sharing food, for example, a Gazelle.
Skilled hands and a clever head
Chimpanzees are highly intelligent, they are able to use tools, and deliberately choosing the most handy tool. And they are even able to improve it. For example, to get to the nest, APE uses a twig: it selects a suitable size of the rod and optimizes it, picking on it leaves. Or, for example, use a stick for knocking down high of the growing fetus. Or to hit her opponent during the fight.
To crack nuts, the monkey puts on his specially selected a flat stone, and others, with a sharp stone, breaks the shell.
To quench your thirst, a chimp uses a big leaf and used it as a scoop. Or does the sponge of the pre-sucked sheet, puts it in a stream and squeezes water into his mouth.
Hunting, apes can score to death to the victim with stones, a hail of rubble would expect of a predator, for example, a leopard who dares to open hunting on these animals.
To not to soak during the transition across the pond, chimpanzees are able to build a bridge out of sticks and broad leaves they will use as an umbrella, a fly swatter, a fan, and as toilet paper.
The good giants or monsters?
It is easy to imagine the feelings of the man who first saw a gorilla – humanoid giant, terrifying alien menacing screams, beating his fists into his chest, breaking and bursting the roots of young trees.Such meetings with forest monsters and spawned terrible stories about the fiend, whose superhuman strength is fatal if not for the human race, for his psyche.
Unfortunately, it is not an exaggeration. Such legends that pushed the public to the fact that these humanoid beings have become too wrong to be treated in the time was virtually uncontrolled, panic the extermination of the gorillas. Mind were threatened with complete extinction, if not for the labors and efforts of scientists who took under his protection of these giants, which in those years people almost knew nothing.
As it turned out, it seemed that these terrible monsters, the most peaceful herbivores,who eat only plant food. Besides, they are almost completely non-aggressiveand to demonstrate their strength and moreover use it only when there is a real danger and if someone comes into their territory.
Moreover, to avoid unnecessary bloodshed, gorillas trying to scare off the offenders, whether the other is male, the ruler of another species or person.
Then enter into the course of every possible means of intimidation:
- colocarei his chest with his fists,
- breaking trees and so on.
Features life gorilla
Gorillas, like chimpanzees, live in small groups, but their number is usually less by 5-10 individuals. Among them is usually the head of the group, the senior male, several females with cubs of different ages, and 1-2 young males. The leader is easy to recognize: on the back of it is silver-gray coat.
To 14 years male gorilla becomes sexually Mature, and instead of the black fur on his back arises of bright strip.
Already huge old male is 180 cm tall and weighs 300 kg. sometimes the One who is from silver dorsal of the males is dominant and becomes the leader of the group. On his mighty shoulders rests the care of all family members.
The leader of the group, the male sends signals to awaken at sunrise and sleep at sunset, he chooses the path in the Bush, which will go the rest of the group looking for food, regulates the order and peace in the group. It also protects from all its impending dangers in the rainforest a great many.
The younger generation in the group brought up their mother. However, if a child suddenly orphaned, then it is the pack leader takes them under his wing. It will be to wear them on his back next to them to sleep and ensure that their game was not dangerous.
When protecting cubs-orphans leader may even go to fight with a leopard, or even with the armed man.
Often catching a baby gorilla entails not only the death of his mother, but the death of the head of the group. The remaining members of the group, without the protection and care of helpless young animals and females also stand on the brink, if someone from males-singles does not accept responsibility for the orphaned family.
Orangutan: characteristics of life
“Orangutan” Malay translates as “wild man”. This name stands for large apes that inhabit the jungles on the Islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Orangutans -they’re amazing creatures on earth.They largely differ from other great apes.
Orangutans are arboreal. Let the weight are quite significant, 65-100 kg, they are great at climbing trees, even at the height of 15-20 m. They prefer not to come down to earth.
Of course, due to the severity of the body, they can’t jump from branches to branches, however, capable of confidently and briskly to climb trees.
Almost around the clock orangutans eat, eating
- bird eggs,
In the evening, orangutans build their own homes, and each is their own, where and settle for the night. They sleep, holding one of the clutches a branch to avoid falling down in my sleep.
Each night orangutans settle in a new place, which again build yourself a “bed” .These animals practically do not form groups, preferring a solitary life or in pairs (mother – young, female – male), although there are times when a couple of adults and several young of different ages form an almost family.
The female of these animals are born 1 baby. The mother takes care of him for about 7 years, until until they Mature enough for independent living.
To 3 years a baby orangutan eats only mother’s milk, and only after this period, the mother begins to give him solid food. She chews the leaves for him, thus making him a vegetable puree.
It prepares the baby to adulthood, teaching him to properly climb trees and build himself a house to sleep in. Baby orangutans are very playful and affectionate, and the whole process of education and training they perceive as an entertaining game.
Orangutans are very smart animals. In captivity they learn to use tools and can even manufacture them yourself. But in terms of gay life for these apes rarely use their abilities: the incessant search for food does not give them the time to develop your natural intelligence.
Bonobos, or pygmy chimpanzees – our closest relative
About the existence of our closest relative – the Bonobo – few people know. Although the set of genes in pygmy chimpanzee coincides with the set of human genes as much as 98%! Also they are very close to us on the fundamentals of socio-emotional behavior.
They live in Central Africa, in the North-East and North-West of the Congo. They never leave the branches of the trees, and the earth moves very rarely.
Characteristic features of the behavior of cooperative hunting. They can have war, then detects the presence of power politics.
Bonobos have no sign language, so typical of other creatures. They give each other voice signals and they are very distinguishable from the signals from the second chimpanzee species.
Voice bonobos is composed of high, sharp and barking sounds. For hunting they use a variety of primitive objects: stones, sticks. In captivity, their intelligence gets the opportunity to grow and prove themselves.There they are in possession of the items and inventing new are the real masters.
Bonobos do not have a leader, as other members of the primates. Distinctive and characteristic feature of the pygmy chimpanzee is that the head of their group or the whole community is female.
Females stay in groups. They also include babies and teenagers up to 6 years. The males remain aloof, but near.
It is interesting that almost all the aggressive bursts from bonobos are replaced by elements of mating behavior.
The fact that they have a dominate female, was identified by scientists in the experiment when combining groups of monkeys of both species. In groups of bonobos have the first begin to foods females. If the male does not agree, then the females join forces and expel the male. During food fights never happens, but it certainly is pairing it before eating.
According to many wise books, animals – is to brothers our smaller. And with confidence we can say that APE is our brothers – neighbors.